May 18, 2024

م

1.1:    RAMADHAN:

All praise is due to Allah Almighty, who is the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. May He shower His countless blessings and mercy on His last Messenger Muhammad and his family.

Ramadhan is the 9th month of Islamic Lunar Calendar. It is the month of Divine blessings, mercy and the best rewards. Muslims are obliged to fast during day time for the whole month. This detailed essay aims to discuss the Ramdhan Rituals performed by Muslims all over the world.

Siyam
(Fasting) is a kind of worship, avoiding certain things, from true dawn to
sunset. The noun used for this practice in Arabic is Sawm (pl. Sayyam).

1.2: SIYAM-UR-RAMADHAN (FASTING IN RAMADHAN)

(A)
OBLIGATION:

(a)
Fasting the whole moth of Ramadhan is a unanimous obligation. Allah Almighty
says:

“It
is the month of Ramadhan in which the Qur’an was revealed, a guidance for
mankind with clear teachings showing the Right Way and a criterion of truth and
falsehood. Therefore, anyone of you who witnesses that month should fast
therein.”
[2:185]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May
Allah shower His blessing and peace on him) said, “The blessed month has come
to you. Allah has made fasting during it obligatory upon you. During it, the
gates to Paradise are opened and the gates to hellfire are locked, and the
devils are chained. There is a night [during this month] which is better than a
thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good is really deprived [of
something great].

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7148, 8979, 8980, 9493]

Ziyad
bin Nuaym Al-Hadhrami (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s
Apostle (May Allah shower His blessing and peace on him) said, “Allah Almighty
has made four things obligatory in Islam, whoever would come with three of
them, it would not suffice for him, until he would come with all of them, i.e
Salat , Zakat,  Seyami Ramadhan and Hajj-ul-Bait.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.17942]

(b)
It is obliged to fast when Hilal (The New Crescent) of Ramadhan is sighted in
any land of Muslims, even if only one trustworthy Muslim, with good character,
testifies the sighting of Hilal after sunset in the western horizon. Sighting
of Hilal in one region suffices the whole Ummah. Computed new moon/dark moon
(Luni-solar Conjunction) does not decide the beginning of new lunar month, until
new crescent is sighted, after the moon moves away from the sun about 10
degrees.

Allah
Almighty says:

“They
ask  you(O! Prophet) about Young Crescents, Say:These are the time
standards for Hajj appointed for the people.

[2:189]


And for the Moon we have designed phases till it appears again like an old
shrivelled palm-frond.
” [36:39]

“He
it is Who made the Sun a source of radiant light and the Moon a light
(reflected) And determined for its phases that you might know how to compute
the years and to count (time).”
[10:5]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I heard Abul Quasim (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) saying: “Begin fasting with
observing (sighting) Hilal, and stop fasting with observing it (again).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H. 9365, 9551, 9552, 9553, 9886, 10062, Sahih Bukhari:H. 1909, Sahih
Muslim:H.1081]

A
number of Messenger’s Companions (May Allah shower His blessingns and peace on
him) reported that people fasted on morning to complete 30 days of Ramadhan,
two villagers came there and both of them witnessed that they had observed
Hilal in the previous evening, then the Messenger orderd to break the fast
(before sunset).

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.19029, 23457, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2339]

Abdullah
bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that people were trying to
sight Hilal, then I informed Allah’s Apostle (May

Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) that I had sighted Hilal, he ordered the
people to fast.

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2342]

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that a villager came to the
Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and told him that he
had sighted Hilal of Ramadhan. He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on
him) said, “Do you testify that there is no God but Allah?” He replied, “Yes.”
Then he said to him, “ Do you testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?”
He replied, “Yes.” Then he (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
said to Bilal (May Allah be pleased with him), “Pronounce to the people that
they should fast tomorrow.”

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2340]

(c)
If 30th night of Sha’ban is cloudy, it is obligatory to count the
next day first day of Ramadhan being cautious and fast on the day with
intension of Ramadhan.

Abdullah
bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Indeed the
(lunar) month comprises 29 full days, don’t fast until you observe Hilal and
don’t stop fasting until you observe it again. If the sky is cloudy (on 29th
Sha’ban) then restrict to that number (i.e 29).” Nafea said,   “It
was the practice of Abdullah bin Umar, when 29 days of Sha’ban had passed, he
sent some body to observe Hilal, if the Hilal was not observed while there were
no clouds or dust on the horizon, he did not fast next day, if the horizon was
cloudy or dusty he fasted on the next day.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.4488, Sahih Bukhari:H.1907, Sahih Muslim:H.1080,  Sunan Ibni
Majah:H.1654, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3449, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1913, 1918] Ayeshah
Siddiqah (May Allah be pleased with her) said, “I fasted with the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) often 29 days, rather
30 days.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.25023, 25104]

Abdullah
bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) said, “I fasted with the Messenger
of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) often 29 days,
rather 30 days.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.3775, 3840, 3871, 4208, 4300]

It
proves that originally, the lunar month comprises 29 full days, however, the
fraction accumulates and fewer makes 30 days. So when sky is not clear, the
prevailing figure 29 must be applied and should fast on the coming day.

(d)
Keep fasting the Ramadhan, untill completion of thirty days or on 29th
day two Muslims good at character testify that they have sighted Hilal after
sunset in the western horizon.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Begin fasting when you
observe Hilal and stop fasting when you observe it (again). If the sky is
cloudy, then fast for thirty days.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H. 7507, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.684, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H. 1908,
Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3443]

(e)
If Hilal of Shawal is observed during day time, it is considered for the coming
night and fast would not be broken but after sunset.

Abu
Wayel (May Allah be pleased with him) said that when we were at Khaniqeen (a
town) Umar bin Khattab’s (May Allah be pleased with him) letter came to us
(with inscription), “Verily! Certain crescents are bigger than the other, so
when you observe crescent during day time, don’t break the fast before sunset;
except two Muslim men testify that they observed it in the previous evening.”

[Sunan-ul-Kubra
Al-Bayhaqi:H.7771-7773]

Abdullah
bin Umar, Usman bin Affan and Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with
them) passed the same ruling as did Umar (May Allah be pleased with him).

[Sunan-ul-Kubra
Al-Bayhaqi:H.7775-7777]

(e)
It is forbidden to fast on the 29th and 30th  day of
Sha’ban exclusively, when sky is clear in the 29th and 3oth
evening of Sha’ban respectively. However, if one has been fasting since the
beginning of Ramadhan, he is permitted to fast on these days too.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Don’t fast one or two
days before onset of Ramadhan, except one fasts these days in his routine.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7199, 7766, 8558, 9276, 9652, 10187, 10455, 10672,  10765,
Sahih Bukhari:H.1914, Sahih Muslim:H.1082,  Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1654, Sahih
Ibni Hibban:H.3586, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1913, 1918]

(B) CONDITIONS FOR OBLIGATION:

There
are four conditions for obligation of fasting:

  1. 1.
    Islam:
    Fasting the month of Ramadhan
    is obligation only to the Muslims.

Allah
Almighty says:

“O
you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those
before you that you may become righteous.”[2:183]

  1. 2.     Puberty: This obligation is only to the Muslims who have
    reached their puberty. The major sign of puberty in boys is first
    ejaculation, while first menstrual period is sign of puberty in girls.

Ali
bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The pen (of
commandment) has been taken away from three persons, i.e the child until he
reaches the age of puberty, the sleeping person until he awakes and the
mentally retorted until he recovers.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H. 940,956,1183, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.1423]

  1. 3.     Sanity: It is obligation to the Muslims who have SANITY of any
    level, while mad/mentally retorted people are not obliged.

See
the argument in condition No.2

  1. 4.     Power: It is obliged for those Muslims who have power enough
    to bear the hardships of fasting. While those who can’t bear the hardships
    have not been obliged to fast.

Allah
Almighty says:

“So
whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] – then an equal number
of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with
hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And
whoever volunteers excess – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you,
if you only knew.” [2:184]

The
people who can’t bear the hardships of fasting and have a legal/valid excuse to
be exempted from the commandment are as follows:

(a)
Old men and women:

The
old men/women , who are unable to fast in Ramadhan, are obliged to feed a needy
for each day of Ramadhan. The minimum quantity of food obliged is one Mudd
(two handful or 788 grams approximately) of wheat or half Sa’a (1294
grams approximately) of other cereals and dates etc.

Ata
bin Abu Rabah (Be His mercy on him) reported that I heard Abdullah bin Abbas
(May Allah be pleased with them) reciting the verse “And upon those who are
able [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor
person [each day].” [2:184] and said, “ It has not been cancelled, but it is a
(concession) for an old man and woman who are unable to fast, so they should
feed a needy every day.”

[Sahih
Bukhari:4505]

Muadh
bin Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him) said, “Then Allah Almighty revealed
the verse, “It is the month of Ramadhan in which the

Qur’an
was revealed, a guidance for mankind with clear teachings showing the Right Way
and a criterion of truth and falsehood. Therefore, anyone of you who witnesses
that month should fast therein.”
[2:185] So Allah Almighty obliged fasting Ramadhan to the
healthy resident and granted concession to the patient and traveler, while the
old man, who is unable to fast is obliged to feed the needy.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H. 22475]

Anas
bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him), in last two years of his life, did
not fast in Ramadhan for being so old, rather fed a needy every day.

[Ibni
Hajr Al-Asqalani, Fat-hul-Bari:vol.8,pp.227, Qadimi Kutub Khana, Karachi]

(b)
Patients: Patients are of two types:

(i)
Hopeless patients who are analogous to old men, have the same ruling as old men
and women.

(ii)
The patients who hope to recover, can enjoy the concession, but are obliged to
Make up Qadha (compensation) after Ramadhan.

The
arguments have been mentioned above.

(c)
Pregnant women/ The mother who feeds her baby her own milk:

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said about the verse [2:184] “It is
for the pregnant and the mother who feeds her baby her own milk.”

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2317]

The
pregnant and the mother who feeds her baby her own milk when feel threat to
their own life, they have concession not to fast and obliged only to make Qadha
(compensation) after Ramadhan. However, if the life of their baby is
threatened, then they can enjoy the concession too, but are obliged to feed a
needy against each day of Ramadhan, in addition to Qadha (compensation).

It
is the ruling of Abdullah bin Abbas and Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased
with them), while no Sahabi contradicted them.

(d)
The Traveler:

The
traveler has the concession not to fast in Ramadhan and making up Qadha
(compensation) after the month. It is recommended for the traveler that he
should not fast when he is on journey of a distance nearly 48 miles. However if
a person with enough power, travels for that distance or lesser/ more and
fasts, then his saom (fasting) is valid.

Jabir
bin Abdullah  (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger
of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was on a journey, he
saw there a crowd alongside a man, who was shaded up. He  (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ What is going on?” They replied
that the man was observing fast. Then he  (May Allah shower His blessings
and peace on him) said,  “Fasting during journey is not a virtuous deed.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.14242, 14463, 14479, 15356, Sahih Bukhari:H.1946, Sahih
Muslim:H.1115,  Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2407, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3552, Sahih
Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2017]

It
is mentioned in one narration of Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) that the
Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) called the man and
commanded him to break the fast.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.14562]

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when half of the 8th
year passed after Hijrah to Madinah,the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) left Madinah, with ten thousands companions,
while he kept fast alongwith the Muslims with him.When they reached Kadeed, the
place between Usfan and Qudaid, he broke the fast (before time) and the others
did so. The last practice/command of the Prophet (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him) is considered Sunnah.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.1892, 2392, 2884, 3089, 3258, 3460, Sahih Bukhari:H.1944, Sahih
Muslim:H.1113, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3555, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2035]

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) left (Madinah) in Ramadhan of
the year of Fath-ul-Makkah. He fasted for Ramadhan and the Muslims did too with
him. When they reached Kadeed, he called for a wooden bowl of water and drank
it, while he was riding  his beast and people were looking at him. This
was to tell the people that he had broken the fast. So the Muslims broke the
fast too.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.2363]

Hamzah
bin Amr Al-Aslami (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that he said,
“O’  Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
I have power to fast in the journey, is there any harm to me?” He (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “It is a concession from Allah the
Exalted, so if one  enjoys this concession, that is well, if some one
likes to fast, there is no harm to him.”

[Sahih
Muslim:H.1117]

Abu
To’amah (Be His mercy on him) reported that he was beside Abdullah bin Umar
(May Allah be pleased with them) when a man came to him and said, “O’ Abu Abdur
Rahman! I have power to fast in the journey.” Abdullah bin Umar  (May
Allah be pleased with them) said, “I herad the Messenger of Allah (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) saying , “One who does not accept the
concession granted by Allah, there is a sin on him equal to the Mount
Arafat.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.5392]

The
last Hadith is about a person who fasts in journey, despite lacking its power.

(C) CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF SAOM:

There
are six conditions for validity of fasting:

(1)
Islam:

Only
Muslims are obliged to fast, non-Muslims are not obliged, if they fast it is
invalid.

For
argument see [3.2:(B):1]

(2)
Sanity:

SANITY
is required for intention, mentally retorted and unconscious have no intention,
so their fast is invalid.

For
argument see [3.2:(B):2]

(3)
Minor with power:

The
mature child, who has power to fast, should be insisted to fast to make habit.
So his / her Saom (fast) is valid.

Rubay
bint Muawadh (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) sent message to the
villages of Ansar (Cooperatives) around Madinah in the morning of Ashoora (10th
Muharram) that one who fsated early in the morning, he should complete his Saom
(fast) and one who did not fast, he should abstain from eating and drinking rest
of the day. Since then we have been fasting and our children too. We take them
to Masjid and make toys of wool for them, whenever they weep for food, we give
these toys to them till the time of breking fast.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.1960, Sahih Musli:H.1136]

(4)
Completion of Menstrual Period:

For
females, fasting is forbidden during their menstrual periods, so completion of
menstrual period is another condition for validity of saom (fasting). Consensus
of scholars has been established on this commandment.

Muadhah (Be His mercy on her) said, I asked Ayeshah (May
Allah be pleased with her) , “What is the reason behind that the female
undergoing menstrual cycle is obliged to make up Qadha for Saom (fast) and not
for Salat (Salat)?” She said. “Are you Hurooriyah(Kharijite)? We did undergo
this phenomenon in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him), then we were commanded to make up Saom and not to
make up Salat.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.26477, Sahih Bukhari:H.321, Sahih Muslim:H.335, Sahih Ibni
Hibban:H.1349, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1001]

(5)
Completion of Postpartum Period:

For
females, fasting is forbidden during their postpartum period, so completion of
postpartum period (40 days) is another condition for validity of fasting.
Consensus of scholars has been established on this commandment.

Postpartum
period is analogous to the menstrual period, regarding religious commandment
about Saom and Salat.

(6)
Intention before true dawn:

Intention
for fasting the coming day is required before true dawn for the validity of Saom
Maktoobah (Obligatory Fasting), whether fasting in Ramadhan or making it up
(Qadha) after Ramadhan.

Hafsah
bint Umar (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ One who does not
determine the fasting till Fajr, his fasting is invalid.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.26989, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2454, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.730, Sunan
an-Nasayee:H.2341, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1700, Muwatta Malik:H.637, Sunan
Ad-Darimi:H.1698]

Intention
for each saom individually is required, collective intention for the whole
month does not suffice. Intention is not just an ambiguous or

doubtful
idea, but it is clear determination. So it should exist in the night hours,
before true dawn.

1.3  OBLIGATION OF SAOM (FASTING):

Refraining
from the nullifiers of Saom, since true dawn to sunset is the obligation of Saom.

Allah Almighty says:
“And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you
from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset.”
[2:187]

1.4: RECOMMENDATIONS IN SAOM (FASTING):

(A)
SUHOOR (MEAL BEFORE DAWN):

Taking
Suhoor (Meal before dawn) is Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him). Delaying Suhoor near to the true dawn is
recommended.

Anas
bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Take Suhoor, indeed Suhoor
is  blessed (meal).”

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.1923]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Take Suhoor, indeed Suhoor
is  blessed (meal).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.8885, 10188]

Jabir
(May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the the Prophet (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) said, “Whoever intends to fast, he should eat
something as Suhoor (Meal before dawn).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.15013, 15117]

Abu Saeed Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported
that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said,
“Taking Suhoor is a blessed action, don’t leave it, even if a draught of water;
because Allah the Exalted and angels send blessings on the people who take
Suhoor.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.15013, 15117]

Erbadh
bin Sariyah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) invited me to take Suhoor in
Ramadhan and said, “Come to this blessed meal.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.17273, 17282, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2344, Sahih Ibni
Khuzaimah:H.1938]

Amr
bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ The difference between our saom
and the saom of the people of the scripture, is taking Suhoor.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.17914, 17923, 17954 Sahih Muslim:H.1096, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3477,
Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1940]

Samurah
bin Jundub (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Don’t stop taking Suhoor with
Bilal’s Adhan, because Fajr (True Dawn) is not a vertical light, but it is the
horizontal line (of light) along the horizon.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.20420]

Abu
Zar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) said, “My Ummah will remain well, until they
haste to break the fast and delay Suhoor.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.21637]

(B) IFTAR (BREAKING THE FAST):

(a)
The time for breaking the fast begins with sunset. It is recommended to hasten
in breaking the fast after sunset.

Sahl
bin Sa’ad (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “People will remain well, until
they haste to break the fast.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.23190, 23216, 23247, 23258, Sahih Bukhari:H.6934 Sahih
Muslim:H.1098, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1697, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.2502, 2506, Sahih
Ibni Khuzaimah: H.2059]

Abdullah
bin Abu Aufa (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that we were traveling
with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) in Ramdhan.
When the sun set, He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said,
“O’ man! Get down and prepare drink for us. He said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! It
is still day.” He said again, “Get down and prepare drink.” Then he did so and
offered him drink. He drank and said pointing towards the West, “When the sun
sets there and the night appears there (East), then Sayem (one who fasts)
should break his fast.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.19614, 19619, 19633,Sahih Bukhari:H.1955, Sahih Muslim:H.1101,
Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3511]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Allah the Exalted says: The
most I love from my slaves, are those people who hasten to break the fast.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7240, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.700-701, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2062]

(c)
Supplication (Dua) just before breaking the fast is recommended, because it is
time for acceptance.

Abdullah
bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Prophet
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)

said, “
One who fasts, when supplicates at the time of breaking the fast, his supplication
is not rejected.”

[Sunan
Ibni Majah]

(c)
Reciting the following words to break the fast is Sunnah:

 اللَّهُمَّ لَك صُمْتُ وَعَلَى رِزْقِك
أَفْطَرْتُ سُبْحَانَك وَبِحَمْدِك اللَّهُمَّ تَقَبَّلْ مِنِّي إنَّك أنت
السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

 “O’
Allah! I fasted for You and broke the fast by the subsistence You granted me,
You are flawless, You are the Praise worthy. O’ Allah! Accept this (worship)
from me, no doubt You are the Hearing and the Knowing.”

Mu’adh
bin Zuhrah (Be His mercy on him) reported that when the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast he recited, “O’
Allah! I fasted for You and broke the fast by the subsistence You granted me.”

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2358]

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast he recited,
“O’ Allah! I fasted for You and broke the fast by the subsistence You granted
me, You are flawless, You are the Praise worthy. O’ Allah! Accept this
(worship) from me, no doubt You are the Hearing and the Knowing.”

[Muajam
At-Tabrani Al-Kabeer]

(d)
Breaking the fast by fresh dates is recommended, if fresh dates are not
available, then by dry dates, if dry dates are not available then by water.

Anas
bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast by dates before
saying Salat, if dates were not available then by dry dates, if dry dates were
not availabale then by droughts of water.

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2356]

(e)
It is recommended to recite the following words after breaking fast:

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتْ الْعُرُوقُ وَثَبَتَ الْأَجْرُ
إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى

“Thirst
has been vanquished, veins have become wet and the reward is ordained, by the
grace of Allah Almighty.”

Abdullah
bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast he recited,
“Thirst has been vanquished, veins have become wet and the reward is ordained,
by the grace of Allah Almighty.”

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2357]

(C)    VIRTUOUS DEEDS:

Virtuous
deeds like Salat, reciting the Holy Qur’an and remembrance of Allah Almighty
are recommended in Ramadhan, particularly during fast. One should try to do
everything in accordance with Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him).

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that  the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)  said, “Allah (mighty and
sublime be He) says: ‘The seed of Adam (Peace be on him) whatever virtuous deed
practices, he is rewarded with ten to seven hundred times virtues except
fasting. Fasting is Mine and it is I Who will give reward for it. [A man] gives
up his sexual passion, his food and his drink for My sake. Fasting is like a
shield, and he who fasts has two joys: a joy when he breaks
his fast and a joy when he meets his Lord. The change in the breath
of the mouth of him who fasts is better in Allah’s estimation than
the smell of musk.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7596, Sahih Bukhari:H.1894, 1904, 5927, 7492, 7538  Sahih
Muslim: H.1151, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3422]

(D)    CHARITY:

Charity
is highly recommended in Ramadhan as it multiplies the reward.

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was the most generous amongst the
people, and he used to be more so in the month of Ramadhan when Gabriel visited
him, and Gabriel used to meet him on every night of Ramadan till the end of the
month. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to
recite the Holy Qur’an to Gabriel, and when Gabriel met him, he used to be more
generous than a fast wind.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.2616, 3012, 3425, 3469, 3539, Sahih Bukhari:H.6, Sahih
Muslim:H.2308, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3511]

1.5: NULLIFIERS OF SAOM (FASTING):

Following
are the nullifiers of saom:

1.
Whatever
reaches to stomach or brain or throat, like food, drink and drugs etc,
nullifies saom (fasting).

(a)
If one applies eye-liner or drops eye-drops to his eyes and feels its taste in
throat, it nullifies saom.

(b)
If one uses ear-drops and feels its taste in throat, it nullifies saom.

(c)
If one uses inhaler and its vapours reach his brain or throat, it nullifies saom.
However dust particles, fragrance or bad smell does not nullify saom.

(d)
If one undergoes the process of enema, it nullifies saom.

(e)
Smoking, whether tobacco or sweet smoking, nullifies saom. However smoke
produced by burning of the fuel does not nullify saom.

(f)
If one tastes food or chews gum/resin etc and he feels its taste in throat, it
nullifies saom.

(g)
If one swallows phlegm that has approached to mouth, it nullifies saom.

(h)
If one swallows one’s own saliva that has reached to lips, or saliva of
another person (like his spouse), it nullifies saom.

The
reasons for aforementioned rulings are as follows:

Allah
Almighty says:

“It
has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your
wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing
for them.  Allah is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this
right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship
from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves
of that which Allah has ordained for you; And eat and drink until the white
thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then
complete the fast until the sunset, but do not lie with them skin to skin when
you are observing ITIKAF in Masajid (houses of worship). These are the bounds
set by Allah: do not, then, approach them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes
clear His verses unto mankind, so that they might remain conscious of Him.”
[2:187]

Allah
Almighty has not only forbidden to eat and drink whilst fasting, but also has
commended to avoid the actions that lead to disobey this commandment, saying ,”
These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them.”

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who does not stop
telling lies and practice with lies and ignorance, Allah does not require him
to refrain from eating and drinking.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.9838, 10569, Sahih Bukhari:H.1903,Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3480, Sahih
Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1995]

Laqeet
bin Sabrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Perform Wudhu very
well, wipe between the fingers and exaggerate in snuffing water, except while
you are observing fast.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.18000, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.142-144,
2366, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.38, 788, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.407, 448]

2.
One
who causes to vomit intentionally, this vomiting nullifies saom, however, if
vomitting occurs unexpectedly, it does not nullify saom.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who vomits
abruptly(during saom), he is not enjoined to make up (Qadha), but one who
vomits intentionally, he should make up.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.10468, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2380,  Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.720,
Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1676, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3518, Sahih Ibni
Khuzaimah:H.1960-1961]

Abu
Darda (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed, the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) vomited (intentionally)
so broke his saom (fast).

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.22044, 22740, 28050]

Thauban
(May Allah be pleased with him) reported that he saw the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) when he vomited
(intentionally) and broke his saom (fast).

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.22730, 22807]

Fadhalah
Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed, the Messenger
of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) visited them on a
day, when generally he used to fast, he sent for a utensil of water and drank
it. We said, “O’ messenger of Allah! You did fast on this day?” He said, “Yes,
but I vomited.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.22044, 22740, 28050, Sunan Ibni Majah:1675]

3.
One
who undergoes Hijamah (cupping therapy) and the person who proceeds Hijamah
(practitioner of cupping therapy), their action of Hijamah (cupping) nullifies saom
of both persons.

Shaddad
bin Aus (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed, he with the
Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) on 18th of
Ramadhan, passed by a man in Al-Baqea, who was undergoing the process of
Hijamah (cupping therapy), while he (May Allah shower His blessings and peace
on him) was holding my hand, he said, “ The man who proceeded Hijamah and the
man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.17241, 17254, 17256, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2319]

Ma’aqil
bin Sinan (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) on 18th of Ramadhan,
passed by him while he  was undergoing the process of Hijamah (cupping
therapy), he (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)  said, “The
man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom
(fast).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.15996, 16040]

Thauban
(May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) passed by a man in Ramadhan
who was undergoing Hijamah process, then he said, “The man who proceeded
Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.22741, 22774, 22796, 22814, Sunan Abu Dawood: H . 2367 , 2371,
Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1680, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1962-1963,1983]

Rafea
bin Khadeej (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the Messenger
of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The man who
proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom
(fast).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.15922, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.774, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3535,Sahih
Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1964,1965]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the

Messenger
of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The man who
proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom
(fast).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.8753, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1679]

Ayeshah
Siddiqah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that indeed the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The man who
proceeded Hijamah and the man who  has undergone Hijamah, broke their saom
(fast).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.27756, 29747]

This
Mutawatir Hadith shows that proceeding Hijamah and undergoing the process of
Hijamah nullifies saom.

4.
The
onset of menstrual period nullifies saom.

Muadhah
(Be His mercy on her) said, I asked Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) ,
“What is the reason behind that the female undergoing menstrual cycle is
obliged to make up (Qadha) for Saom (fast) and not for Salat (Salat)?” She
said. “Are you Hurooriyah(Kharijite)? We did undergo this phenomenon in the
presence of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on
him), then we were commanded to make up Saom and not to make up Salat.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.26477, Sahih Bukhari:H.321, Sahih Muslim:H.335, Sahih Ibni
Hibban:H.1349, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1001]

5.
Post
partum bleeding nullifies saom. Postpartum period is analogous to the menstrual
period, regarding religious commandments about Saom and Salat.

6.
If
one determines to break the fast, it nullifies saom (fsting), even if he/she
does not break in reality. The reason for this ruling is that when one
determines to come out of the worship, he/she invalidates his/her worship,
because determination is one of the conditions for validity.

7.
If
a couple does not copulate, but have sex with rest of the body and it results
in ejaculation, then this ejaculation nullfies saom.

  1. If masturbation (jerking off, wanking, fingering etc)
    results in wetting, it nullifies saom.
  2. If a man gazes at a woman, kisses her or fondles her
    with his hands and it results in ejaculation, then this ejaculation
    nullifies saom.
  3.  If a man kisses a woman or touches her and he
    does not ejaculate but secretes pre-ejaculation fluid/Madhi, then
    this pre-ejaculation nullifies saom. If a man secretes pre-ejaculation
    fluid without kissing or touching a woman, it does not nullify saom.
  4.  If two or more women (lesbians) perform
    homosexual activity and one of them or all of them get wet, it nullifies
    her/their saom.
  5.  When a couple copulates in the day time, with saom,
    whether the copulation is vaginal or anal, with male or female, with elder
    or younger, whether semen springs out or not, whether they remember their saom
    or  forget about it, whether with consent or compulsion, the
    copulation nullifies saom of both members of the couple.

Allah
Almighty says:

“It
has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your
wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing
for them.” 
[2:187]

This
verse indicates that copulation in the day time, with saom, is forbidden. The
Hadith explaining the issue will come under the heading Kaffarah (Ransom).

13.  If a person commits blasphemy by
humiliating Allah Almighty or any prophet, or does polytheistic activities or
utters words of disbelief, or perform any act of apostasy, it nullifies saom.
When he would repent and turn to Islam again, he would be obliged to make up that
saom.

  1. Death nullifies saom.

1.6: MAKING UP SAOM (QADHA):

(A)
If one breaks his/her fast, due to any of the nullifiers mentioned above,
he/she is obliged to make it up after Ramadhan. He/she is obliged to fast only
for one day against each day. For example if one breaks one fast, he/she is
obliged to fast for only one day.

Allah
Almighty says:

“The
month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for
the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the
new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey –
then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not
intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to
glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be
grateful.”
[2:185]

(B)
If a couple copulate near true dawn, believing that the true dawn has not
risen, but in reality it has, then they are obliged to make up and expiate for
that saom. If same happens in evening when they believe that the sun has set,
but in reality it has not, then they have the same ruling.

(C)
If one eats or drink or practice any other nullifier (except copulation),
believing that the true dawn has not risen but in reality it has, or does the
same in the evening, believing that the sun has set, but in reality it has not,
then he/she is obliged to make up.

 

(D)
If a person converts to Islam, a female completes her menstrual/postpartum
period, a patient recovers, a child reaches his/her puberty, a mad becomes
normal or a traveler arrives at his residence in any part of a day (true dawn
to sunset) of Ramadhan, they all are obliged to abstain from nullifiers of Saom
(fasting) for the rest of the day and making up Qadha for the day after
Ramadhan.

Rubay
bint Muawadh (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) sent message to the
villages of Ansar (Cooperatives) around Madinah in the morning of Ashoora (10th
Muharram) that one who fsated early in the morning, he should complete his Saom
(fast) and one who did not fast, he should abstain from eating and drinking
rest of the day. Since then we have been fasting and our children too. We take
them to Masjid and make toys of wool for them, whenever they weep for food, we
give these toys to them till the time of breking fast.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.1960, Sahih Musli:H.1136]

(E)
If people did not fast believing the last day of Sha’aban, but it is proved
through reliable sources in the day, that Hilal was sighted in the previous
evening, then they are obliged to refrain from nullifiers of saom and make up
for that missing saom.

(F)
If one delays making up (Qadha) without a legal reason (like disease or weakness)
and fails to make up even the next Ramadhan begins, then he/she is obliged to
feed a needy against each saom, in addition to Qadha after that Ramadhan.

Abdullah
bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Umar and Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them)
issued the same ruling, while no Companion contradicted this ruling.

(G)
It is recommended to make up the missed Saom/Sayyam immedeately and
continuously after Ramadhan, however making up continually is permissible too.

(H)
If one dies before making up saom, that was obligation on him/her, if he/she
had enough time to make it up but failed to make up, then his/her hiers
should feed a needy agianst each saom missed. However, if he/she died in
Ramadhan, and missed certain days to fast, then there is nothing on him/her
because he/she had no time to make up.

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said, “If one got sick in Ramadhan,
then died (after Ramadhan) and could not make up, feed from him.”

[Sunan
Abu Dawwod:H.2401]

1.7: EXPIATION (KAFFARAH):

(A)
If a couple breaks their fast by copulation in day time in Ramadhan, as
mentioned in nullifier No.12, then they are obliged to expiate in addition to
making up. The man and woman are obliged to free a slave if they have,
otherwise they are obliged to fast for two successive months continuously, if
they can. If they can’t, then they are obliged to feed sixty needy people. When
they copulate willingly, they are obliged to expiate independently.

(B)
If the woman is forced to copulate, then she is obliged just to make up, there
is no expiation on her part, while the man is not assumed to be forced.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that while we were sitting
with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) a man came
and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostle (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) asked what was the matter with him. He
replied “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting in
Ramadhan.” Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative.
Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asked him,
“Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. The
Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asked him, “Can you
afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. The
Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) kept silent and while
we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet .
He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said (to him), “Take this
(basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a
person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s)
two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet smiled till his pre-molar
teeth became visible and then said, “Feed your family with it.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7288, 6944, 7678, 7772, 10698, Sahih Bukhari:H.6709, Sahih
Muslim:H.1111, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3524, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1943-1945,
1949,1950]

The
Holy Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) did not commanded
the wife of the man mentioned in the Hadith to expiate, because she was forced
by her husband to copulate.

(C)
If a couple/man/woman copulates two times or more in one day, they are obliged
to make up and pay expiate for only once, provided that they have not expiated
for first time. If they expiated for first time and

copulate
again on the same day, after expiation, they are obliged to expiate again.

(D)
If a couple/man/woman copulates on two different days of Ramadhan, they are
obliged to expiate for second time, if they have already expiated for the first
day before second copulation.

(E)
There is no expiation for any nullifiers of saom, except the copulation.

(F)
The minimum quantity of food obliged for per capita is one Mudd (two
handful or 788 grams approximately) of wheat or half Sa’a (1294 grams
approximately) of other cereals/flour and dates etc. Feeding is recommended
instead of paying the price of food. However paying the price to sixty needy
people equally, is permissible. Feeding the prescribed quantity of food to each
needy person should be ensured. Just feeding without any measurement is not
permissible.

1.8: OFFENSIVES IN SAOM (MAKROOHAT):

(A)
EVIL PRACTICES:

Ramadhan
is the month of training the human behaviour. So all the evil practices
should be strictly avoided in Ramadhan, so that it make your soul strong enough
to fight against these evils after Ramadhan successfully as well. Evil
practices in Ramadhan are extremely offensive.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who does not stop
telling lies and practice with lies and ignorance, Allah does not require him
to refrain from eating and drinking.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.9838, 10569, Sahih Bukhari:H.1903,Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3480, Sahih
Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1995]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ When some body among
you fast, he should avoid talking rubbish

and
arguing with others that day. If  some body abuse him or fight with him,
he should say ‘I am fasting. I am fasting.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7679, Sahih Bukhari:H.1904, Sahih Muslim:H.1151, Sunan Abu
Dwaood:H.2363]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Sometimes a man who
fasts, gets nothing but hunger and thirst.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.8843]

Ubaid
(May Allah be pleased with him),Mawla of the Prophet, reported that two women
fasted, while a man said to the  Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings
and peace on him), “O’ Messenger of Allah! These two women fasted, but they are
near to death for thirst.” He (PBUH) avoided him or kept silent. It was severe
hot. The man repeated, “ O’ Allah’s Apostle! By God, they surely are dead or
near to death. He (PBUH) said, “ Call them here.” So they came there. Then a
pot was brought and he (PBUH) asked one of them to vomit. So she vomited pus,
blood or rotted blood and flesh. Half of the pot filled with her vomit. Then he
(PBUH) asked the other woman to vomit. So  she vomited pus, blood or
rotted blood and flesh, even the pot was full. Then he (PBUH) said, “They
fasted (avoided) the things what Allah has made lawful and they did what Allah
has forbidden for them. One of them sat by the other and they began to eat the
flesh of people (Committed back biting).”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.24053, 24055, 24062]

(B)
KISSING AND FONDLING WITH A WOMAN:

Kissing
a woman and fondling with her body, while fasting, is offensive because it may
lead to secrete pre-ejaculation or even ejaculation, while both nullify saom.

Allah
Almighty says:

These
are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them – [for] it is thus
that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that they might remain
conscious of Him.” [2:187]

Abdullah
bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that while we were
sitting by the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), a
young man came to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
and said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! Is kissing permissible for me while I am
fasting?” He (PBUH)replied in negative. Then an old man came and said, “O’
Messenger of Allah! Is kissing permissible for me while I am fasting?” He
(PBUH) said, “Yes.” (The narrator said) We look at each other, then the
Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ I
know why you are looking at each other, verily that old man has self control.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.6739, 7054]

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) said, “The Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) used to kiss while he was fasting. But who
among you have control on his desire as the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had
control on his desire?”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.25175, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1684]

Abdullah
bin Sa’alabah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet’s
companions (May Allah be pleased with them) used to forbid me kissing, whether
I may go beyond kissing, then the people of the day (Tabiyeen) forbid this and
say, “Verily, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was protected by Allah Almighty,
while nobody has this protection save him.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.24069]

A
great majority of Sahabah and Tabiyeen considered kissing whilst fasting, as an
offensive. They believed that Prophet’s (May Allah shower His blessings and
peace on him) kissing was exclusive for him because he had the strongest
control on his desire, while others do not.

 

(C)
EXAGGERATION IN RINSING MOUTH AND SNUFFING WATER:

Exaggeration
in rinsing mouth and snuffing water during Wudhu is offensive.

Laqeet
bin Sabrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Perform Wudhu very
well, wipe between the fingers and exaggerate in snuffing water, except while
you are observing fast.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.18000, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.142-144, 2366, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.38,
788, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.407, 448]

(D)
SAOM WISAL (UNINTERRUPTED FASTING):

Saom
Wisal (uninterrupted fasting) is offensive by the Prophet (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him).

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to observe Saom Wisal (fasting
uninterrupted). They (his Companions) said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! you observe
Saom Wisal.” Upon this he (PBUH) said, “You are not like me in this matter, for
I spend my night (in a state) that my Lord feeds me and provides me drink.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7539, 7773, 10705, Sahih Bukhari:H.1965, Sahih Muslim:H.1103]

Abdullah
bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah’s Messenger (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) fasted uninterrupted in Ramadhan and the
people fsted uninterrupted as well. They said, “You forbid us to fast
uninterrupted, but you do so.” He (PBUH) said, “I am not like one of you. I am
fed and provided with drink.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.4721, 4752, 5795, 5917, 6125, 6299, 6413, Sahih Bukhari:H.1922, Sahih
Muslim:H.1102]

 

 

(F)
COLLECTING SALIVA & SWALLOWING:

Collecting
saliva in oral cavity and swallowing  is offensive, though it does not
nullify saom.

(G)
SWALLOWING THE FOOD PARTICLES:

Swallowing
the food particles left in mouth after True Dawn, is offensive.

(H)
SMELLING A PERFUME:

Smelling
a perfume, that can enter the throat, is offensive like musk and Kafoor
(camphor).

(I)
TASTING FOOD:

Tasting
food or anything without necessity is offensive, because there is fear of
reaching taste into throat, that nullifies saom.

1.9: CONCESSIONS:

(A)   MISTAKE,
FORGETFULNESS AND COMPULSION:

One
who practices any of nullifiers except copulation, by mistake, compulsion or
forgetting saom, then his/her saom is valid, he/she is not required to make up.
If dust particles of dirt, cotton, wool, flour, spices etc enter the throat
unintentionally, it does not harm the saom. Same is the case for odour of filth
and chemicals.

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Allah has pardoned for
me my people for [their] mistakes and [their] forgetfulness and for
what they have done under duress.”

[Sunan
Ibni Majah:H.2043]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who eats or drink
forgetting his swom, he should complete his saom, because Allah fed him and
made drink.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.9125, 9485, 10374, 10398, 10675, Sahih Bukhari:H.6669, Sahih
Muslim:H.1155,Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2398, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1673, Sahih Ibni
Khuzaimah: H.1989]

(B)   FASTING
IN THE STATE OF RITUAL IMPURITY:

If
a couple copulates at night and can’t take bath till True Dawn but they
determine saom of the day, their saom is valid. However they are obliged to
take bath before sunrise to say Fajr Salat. Same is the case for a woman who
completes her menstrual or postpartum period at night and a young man who
ejaculates at night but can’t take bath till True Dawn.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that a person came to the Apostle of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asking for a fatwa
(religious verdict). She had been overhearing it from behind the curtain. She
added that he (the person) had said: Messenger of Allah, (the time) of prayer
overtakes me as I am in a state of junub(post sex pollution); should I observe
fast (in this state)? Upon this the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: (At times
the time) of prayer overtakes me while I am in a state of junub, and I observe
fast (in that very state), whereupon he said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! you are
not like us Allah has pardoned all your sins, the previous ones and the later
ones. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said, “By Allah, I hope I am the most
God-fearirg of you, and possess the best knowledge among you of those (things)
against which I should guard.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.24889, 25742, 26211, Sahih Muslim:H.1110 , Sunan Abu Dawood:
H.2389, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3492, 3495, 3501, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah: H.2014]

(C)
SHOWER:

Having
shower to cool the body is permissible in saom.

Abu
Bakr bin Abdur Rahman (Be His mercy on him) reported that a companion of the
Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “I saw the
Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) while he was pouring
water on his head for severe thirst or heat.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.15998, 16719, 23577, 23578, 23611, 23861, 24049, Sunan Abu
Dawood:H.2365]

(D)
NATURAL MISWAK (TOOTH STICK):

Using
natural Miswak (Short and thin wooden stick used to clean the teeth) is
permissible in swom, after making its tip soft, preferably dried, however, it
is better to avoid it from zenith to sunset.

Amir
bin Rabeah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I saw the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) innumerable times,
using Miswak, while he was fasting.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.15766, 15776, Sunan Abu Dawood: H.3264, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.725,
Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah: H.2007]

Ali
bin Abu Talib and Khabbab bin Al-Art (May Allah be pleased with them) reported
that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
said, “Use Miswak in the morning while you are fasting, but don’t use it in the
evening.”

[Muajam-ut-Tabrani]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The change in the
breath of the mouth of him who fasts is better in Allah’s estimation
than the smell of musk.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.7596, Sahih Bukhari:H.1894, 1904, 5927, 7492, 7538  Sahih
Muslim: H.1151, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3422]

The
smell of breath changes after noon, while Miswak removes this smell. So it is
recommended to avoid using Miswak when sun has passed the zenith.

(E)
SLEEPING:

If
a person sleeps the whole day while he is fasting, his saom (fasting) is valid.
However, he is obliged to make up the missed Salats when he awakes. One should
avoid making it a habit.

Ali
bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The pen (of
commandment) has been taken away from three persons, i.e the child until he
reaches the age of puberty, the sleeping person until he awakes and the
mentally retorted until he recovers.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H. 940, 956, 1183, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.1423]

1.10:       ITIKAF
(SECLUISION):

(A)
DEFINITION:

Literally,
ITIKAF means adherence to some thing/place. In Islamic terminology, it is
residence in Masjid for a definite period with intention of isolation for the
sake of Allah Almighty.

(B)
LEGAL STATUS:       

(a)
Eitikaf is Sunnah in any time of the year for any definite period, however it
is Sunnah Mu’akkadah (Strongly Recommended) to observe ITIKAF in the last
decade of Ramadhan.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF in the last ten
days of Ramadan till Allah called him back (to his heavenly home). Then his
wives continued to observe ITIKAF after him.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.25120, 26479, 26912, Sahih Bukhari:H.2026, Sahih Muslim: H. 1171,
Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3665]

(b)
If a man vows to observe Eitikaf , it becomes obligatory for him.

Abdullah
bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that Umar bin Khattab (May
Allah be pleased with him) said to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings
and peace on him), “In the days of ignorance, I vowed to observe ITIKAF in
Masjid-ul-Haram for the whole night.” He (PBUH) said, “Perform what you did
vow.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.4577, 4705, 4922, 5539, Sahih Bukhari:H.2032, 2043, 3144, 4320,
6697, Sahih Muslim: H. 1659, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.4380, Sahih Ibni
Khuzaimah:H.2249]

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who vows to obey Allah, he
should obey and one who vows to disobey Allah, he should not disobey.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.24576, 24642, 26257, 26402, 26403, Sahih Bukhari:H.6696, Sahih
Ibni Hibban:H.4387-4388, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2241]

(c)
Saom (Fasting) is not necessarily required in ITIKAF besides Ramadhan, however
it is preferred. If one vows to fast, in addition to ITIKAF, then fasting turns
obligatory.

Abdullah
bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that Umar bin Khattab (May
Allah be pleased with him) said to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings
and peace on him), “In the days of ignorance, I vowed to observe ITIKAF in
Masjid-ul-Haram for the whole night.” He (PBUH) said, “Perform what you did
vow.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.4577, 4705, 4922, 5539, Sahih Bukhari:H.2032, 2043, 3144, 4320,
6697, Sahih Muslim: H. 1659, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.4380, Sahih Ibni
Khuzaimah:H.2249]

 (C)
CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF ITIKAF:

There
are six conditions for validity of ITIKAF for men and women, while one more is
for women:

  1. ISLAM:

No
virtuous deed is accepted, except with faith in Allah Almighty and His Last
Messenger (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).

Actions of
disbelievers are worthless in the estimation of Allah Almighty.

Allah
Almighty says:

“And
it was already revealed to you and to those before you that if you should
associate [anything] with Allah , your action would surely become worthless,
and you would surely be among the losers.”
[39:65]

  1. PUBERTY: For arguments see conditions for obligation of saom [1.2:(B):2]
  2. SANITY: For arguments
    see conditions for obligation of saom [1.2:(B):2]
  3. MAJOR PURIFICATION:

Major
Purification i.e bathing is required if one is polluted with major pollution.
This is a condition for staying in Masjid that one should not be polluted with
major pollution. Sanity

Allah
Almighty says:

“And
[mention] when We made the House a place of return for the people and [a place
of] security. And take, [O believers], from the standing place of Abraham a
place of prayer. And We charged Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], “Purify My House
for those who perform Tawaf and those who are staying [there] for worship and
those who bow and prostrate [in prayer].”
[2:125]

“And
[mention, O Muhammad], when We designated for Abraham the site of the House,
[saying], “Do not associate anything with Me and purify My House for those who
perform Tawaf and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate.”
[22:26]

Ummi
Salamah  (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) entered the courtyard
of this Masjid and called out at the top of his voice,
“The Masjid is not permissible for anyone who is sexually impure or
any woman who is menstruating.”

[Sunan
Ibni Majah:H.645]

  1. MASJID:

(a)
ITIKAF of a man and a woman is valid only a in a Masjid, with boundary walls
and roof. Men are required to observe Eitikaf in a Masjid, where five Salats
are recited in Jama’ah (congregation). However a Masjid Jamea (where
Salat-ul-Jumuah  is recited) is preferred for men. Women can observe ITIKAF
in any Masjid, whether without Jama’ah and Jumuah, because they are not obliged
to offer Salat in Jama’ah and Salat-ul-Jumuah.

Allah
Almighty says:

“But
do not lie with them skin to skin when you are observing ITIKAF in Masajid
(houses of worship). These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach
them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that
they might remain conscious of Him.” [2:187]

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that one of the wives of the Messenger
of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) observed ITIKAF with
him, while she was suffering from Istihadhah (unusual vaginal bleeding). She
sometimes  observed paleness and sometimes redness, even we had to put a
dish under her, while she offered Salat.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.25512, Sahih Bukhari:H.310, 2037]

(b)
If a person vows to observe ITIKAF, without specifying a particular Masjid, he
can observe ITIKAF in any Masjid, where five Salats are recited in Jam’ah.

(c)
If a person vows to observe ITIKAF in Masjid-ul-Haram, he is obliged to fulfill
his vow in this Masjid only.

(d)
If a person vows to observe ITIKAF in Masjid Nabawi, his vow will be fulfilled
if he observes ITIKAF in Masjid-ul-Haram or the Masjid he vowed. If a person
vows to observe ITIKAF in Masjid Al-Aqsa (Jerusalem), he has option to observe ITIKAF
in any of the three Masajid mentioned here.

Some
companions of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
reported that on the day of Fath Makkah, a man came to the Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace on him), whilst he was attending a meeting by
Muqami Ibrahim, he greeted the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and
peace on him) and said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle! I owed that when Allah will grant
victory of Makkah, to the Prophet and the believers, I shall offer Salat in
Baitul Maqdis (Jerusalem) and I have found a man from Al-Sham (Syria) here
among the Quraish, who will accompany me while going and coming back.” The
Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “
Offer Salat here.” The man uttered his wording three times and every time the
Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) replied, “
Offer Salat here.” (in Baitullah) Then the man repeated his words fourth times
and the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Go and
offer Salat there, I swear Allah who sent Muhammad with the Truth, if you did
offer Salat here, your vow to offer Salat in Baitul Maqdis, would be
fulfilled.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.23556-23557, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.3306]

  1. INTENTION:

Intention
is another condition for validity of ITIKAF.

Umar
bin Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Actions are by
intentions.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.168, 300, Sahih Bukhari:H.1, 54, Sahih Muslim: H. 1907, Sahih Ibni
Hibban:H.388, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.142, 143, 455]

Seventh
condition for a woman is to get permission of her husband, to observe ITIKAF.
If he does not allow her, then she is not allowed to observe ITIKAF. If she
observes ITIKAF voluntarily, without his permission, her observance is invalid,
and if she has vowed for ITIKAF and she has entered her place of  ITIKAF without his husband’s permission, then
she should complete it. Same is the case for slave-man and slave-woman, as they
are obliged to seek permission of their master.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF every year in the month
of Ramadhan. And after offering Salat-ul-Fajr, he used to enter the place of
his ITIKAF. She asked his permission to let her observe ITIKAF and he allowed
her, and so she pitched a tent in the Masjid. When Hafsah (May Allah
be pleased with her) heard of that, she also pitched a tent (for
herself), and when Zainab (May Allah be pleased with her) heard of that, she
too pitched another tent. When, in the morning, Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) had
finished the Salat-ul-Fajr, he saw four tents and asked, “What is this?”
He was informed about it. He then said, “What made them do this? Is it
righteousness? Remove the tents, for I do not want to see them.” So,
the tents were removed. The Prophet (PBUH) did not observe ITIKAF that
year in the month of Ramadhan, but did it in the last ten days of Shawwal.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.2041]

The
Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was angry
because Hafsah bint Umar and Zainab bint Jahash (May Allah be pleased with
them) pitched the tents for ITIKAF without his permission. If he had allowed
all of three wives, he would not be surprised to see so many tents. It made him
so angry that he not only dismissed their ITIKAF, but posponed his own ITIKAF.
One should not conclude that he (PBUH) disliked the ITIKAF of his wives in
Masjid. If was so, he had not allowed Ayeshah (MAY Allah be pleased with her)
to observe ITIKAF in Masjid.

(D)
OBLIGATION IN ITIKAF:

One
who observes ITIKAF is obliged to stay within the boundary of Masjid all the
time, except an inevitable necessity allows him to go out.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) said, “It is Sunnah for the person who observes
ITIKAF, that he should avoid to attend the patient (out of Masjid) and attend
Funeral prayer, touch the woman and fondle with her; and going out (of Masjid)
except for an inevitable necessity.”

[Sunan
Abu Dawood:H.2473]

One
can leave Masjid to relieve himself, urinate, perform ritual bath, perform
obligatory Wudhu (ablution), vomit when captured by it, fetch food or water if
he has no body to bring for him, offer Salat-ul-Jumuah, fulfill testimony that
he has been specified for, attend a Funeral prayer that depends on him and save
his life or property when it is severely threatened.

If
a woman observes ITIKAF and in the mean while her husband passes away, she
should leave Masjid and observe Eddah at her husband’s home.

(E)
RECOMMENDATIONS IN ITIKAF:

(a)
When one intends to observe ITIKAF voluntarily, in last decade of Ramadhan , it
is recommended to  enter the place of ITIKAF (tent), before sunset on 20th
day of Ramadhan. However if one enters after Salat-ul-Fajr of 21st
Ramadhan, his ITIKAF is valid. If one vows to observe ITIKAF in last decade of
Ramadhan, then he is obliged to enter before sunset on 20th day of
Ramadhan.

Abu
Sayeed al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) observed ITIKAF in the
first ten days of Ramadhan and we did so; then Gabriel came and said, “What are
you seeking, is in the coming nights.” He (PBUH) then observed ITIKAF in the
middle ten (days) and we did so. Gabriel came again and said, “What are you
seeking, is in the coming nights.” When morning of 20th day of
Ramadhan appeared, he (PBUH) stood to deliver a lecture and said, “He who among
you observed ITIKAF with the Messenger of Allah, he should return (to his place
of ITIKAF). Lailat-ul-Qadr (The Glorious Night) was shown to me. It falls on
the odd numbers in the last decade of Ramadhan, I have forgotten exact night. I
saw (in the dream) that I was prostrating in clay and water.” That moment there
we found no patch of cloud. But thereby, clouds came; the roof of Masjid was
made of date-aypalm fronds. Rain descended on us and the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) offered Salat with us, and I
saw the traces of clay and water on

 the forehead of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). This
was shown to us for verification of his dream.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.11601, 11727, 11917, Sahih Bukhari:H.2018, 2027,2036, Sahih
Muslim:H. 1165-1169, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3673, 3674, 3677, 3684, 3685, Sahih
Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2171, 2219, 2220, 2238, 2243]

In
another narration Abu Sayeed al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported
that we observed ITIKAF with the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him) in the middele decade (of Ramadhan).It was the
morning of 20th day (of Ramadhan) we began to shift our luggage. The
Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) came and
said, “One who observed ITIKAF (with me) he should return to his place of ITIKAF.
I saw this (glorious) night and I saw that I was prostrating in water and
clay.” When he returned to his place of ITIKAF, the sky became cloudy and rain
descended on us. By Lord who sent him with Truth, the sky became cloudy in the
last part of the day(20th ). The Msjid’s roof was made of date-palm
frunds; so I saw the traces of water and clay on his nose and forehead.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.2040]

The
collection of Abu Sayeed Al-Khudri’s Hadiths show that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and his companions entered
their tents before the sunset on 20th day of Ramadhan to acquire the
virtue of Lailat-ul-Qadr in 21st night, that is the first night of
last decade. That is why it is preferred to follow this practice.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF every year in the month
of Ramadhan. And after offering Salat-ul-Fajr, he used to enter the place of
his ITIKAF.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.2041]

(b)
It is recommended to isolate oneself in a tent. Tents should be pitched at a
place within the boundary of Masjid, where Salat is not offered usually.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF in the last decade of
Ramadhan. I used to pitch a tent for him and he entered it after offering
Salat-ul-Fajr.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.2033]

(c)
One who observes ITIKAF, he should keep him busy in virtuous activities like
voluntary prayers, reciting the Quran, Zikr(remembrance) of Allah Almighty,
salat alan Nabi (Supplication for the Prophet), reading Tafseer, Hadith, Seerah
or Fiqh books  and meditation etc.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that when last decade of Ramadhan
commenced, Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)
used to make his belt tight (to struggle hard), make his nights alive (watching
in prayers) and make his family watch the night (in prayers).

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.2024]

(d)
One who observes ITIKAF, he should venerate the Masjid and observe all
Adab (etiquette).

(e)
One who observes ITIKAF, he should avoid all the worthless activities.

(f)
One who observes ITIKAF, he should avoid frequent conversation. However it does
not require complete silence, every time. He can speak when it is necessary.

(g)
It is recommended to stay at Masjid on the Eind night and leave for home on the
Eid Day after offering Salat-ul-Eid. Though, leaving for home after sunset of
last day of Ramadhan is permissible.

(E)
NULLIFIERS OF ITIKAF:

(a)
Going out of Masjid without an inevitable necessity, as mentioned above,
nullifies ITIKAF.

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) moved his head towards me while he was
observing ITIKAF in Masjid, so I combed his hair. He never entered the house,
except for a human necessity.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.25238, 26131, 26791, Sahih Bukhari:H.2029, Sahih Muslim:H. 297,
Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3669, 3672, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2230, 2231]

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) was observing ITIKAF in Masjid, he came to me
even he rested his back on the door of my compartment, then I washed his head
whilst I was in my compartment and his entire body was in Masjid.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.25071]

It
is notable that Ayeshah’s compartment was adjacent to Masjid an-Nabawi and its
entrance was from the courtyard of Masjid. Same was the case of the
compartments of other wives of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and
peace on him).

(b)
Copulation nullifies ITIKAF, whether he performs at Masjid or at home, whether
intentionally or mistakenly. If masturbation or fondling with a woman results
in ejaculation, it also nullifies ITIKAF.

Allah
Almighty says:

 “But
do not lie with them skin to skin when you are observing ITIKAF in Masajid
(houses of worship). These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach
them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that
they might remain conscious of Him.” [2:187]

(c)
Drinking liquor nullifies ITIKAF.

(d)
Apostasy nullifies ITIKAF.

(E)
MAKING UP ITIKAF AND EXPIATION:

(a)
If a person observes ITIKAF voluntarily and performs any of the nullifiers
mentioned above, he is recommended to make up, though it is not an obligation.
However he is not required to expiate.

Anas
bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF  in
the last decade of Ramadhan, whilst he was residing at home. If he was on
journey (in those days), he used to observe ITIKAF for twenty days, in the next
year.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.12040, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.803, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3662, 3664,
Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2226-2227]

Ubaye
bin Ka’ab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF  in
the last decade of Ramadhan, in a year he was on journey so could not observe ITIKAF
(in last decade of Ramadhan), then he observed for twenty days in the next
year.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.21600, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2463, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1770, Sahih
Ibni Hibban:H.3663, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2225]

Ayeshah
(May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower
His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF every year in the month
of Ramadhan. And after offering Salat-ul-Fajr, he used to enter the place of
his ITIKAF. She asked his permission to let her observe ITIKAF and he allowed
her, and so she pitched a tent in the Masjid. When Hafsah (May Allah
be pleased with her) heard of that, she also pitched a tent (for
herself), and when Zainab (May Allah be pleased with her) heard of that, she
too pitched another tent. When, in the morning, Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) had
finished the Salat-ul-Fajr, he saw four tents and asked, “What is this?”
He was informed about it. He then said, “What made them do this? Is it righteousness?
Remove the tents, for I do not want to see them.” So, the tents were
removed. The Prophet (PBUH) did not observe ITIKAF

that year
in the month of Ramadhan, but did it in the last ten days of Shawwal.

[Sahih
Bukhari:H.2041]

The
Hadith of Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) proves that making up of
voluntary ITIKAF is not obligatory, if it was obligatory, the Prophet (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) would have ordered his wives to
make up, but he did not.

(b)
When a woman observes ITIKAF to fulfill her vow and her menstrual or post
partum period commences, she is obliged to leave Masjid and return to her ITIKAF
after getting purified to make up the missed days. She is not required to
expiate.

(c)
If a person observes ITIKAF to fulfill his vow and perform any of the
nullifiers mentioned above without a valid excuse, his ITIKAF is void and he is
obliged to make up ITIKAF for full days he vowed and offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen
(Oath Expiation).

(d)
If a person observes ITIKAF to fulfill his vow and leaves it for a valid excuse
like serious threat for his/her life or property, severe disease, testimony for
that he is specified, and Eddah for passed away husband, then he/she is obliged
to come back to his/her ITIKAF after resolving his/her excuse, however, there
are three possibilities that require different rulings:

(1)
If he/she vows to observe ITIKAF on different days without specifying them,
then he/she is obliged to complete his/her days only. He/She is not required to
make up or expiate. However he/she would not count the day when he/she left ITIKAF.

(2)
If he/she vows to observe ITIKAF on specific days, like month of Ramadhan, then
he/she is obliged to make up the missed days and offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath
Expiation).

(3)
If he/she vows to observe ITIKAF on unspecific but successive days
like one month without naming it, then he/she has two options:

(i)
He/She can make up the missed days and offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath
Expiation).

(ii)He
can observe ITIKAF for the total days he vowed, beginning from one, and now he
is not required to offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation).

Uqbah
bin Aamir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Expiation of vow is
expiation of oath.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.17434, Sahih Muslim:H.1645]

1.11: KAFFARAT-UL-YAMEEN (OATH EXPIATION):

One,
who is obliged to offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation), has four options:

(1)
Feed ten needy people

(2)
Give clothes to ten needy people, in which they can say prayers

(3)
Liberate a slave

(4)
Fast on three successive days

Allah
Almighty says:

“The
expiation for it is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that
wherewith you feed your own families or the clothing of them, or the liberation
of a slave and for him who finds not (the resources to do so), then should fast
for three days; this is the penance of your oaths when you have sworn.
” [5:89]

1.12: LAILATUL QADR
/THE GRAND NIGHT

The last decade is the most important decade of Ramadhan
because the first revelation of the Holy Quran was sent to the Messenger
Muhammad (Be His blessings and peace upon him) in the 5th night of
this decade.

 

Wathilah bin Asqa’a (May Allah be pleased with him) reported
that the Messenger of Allah (Be His blessings and peace upon him) said: “The
Scriptures of Ibrahim (Abraham) were revealed to him in the first night of
Ramdhan, the Torah was revealed in the seventh night of Ramadhan,  The Injil (The Gspels) was revealed in the 14th
night of Ramadhan and The Quran was revealed in the 25th night of
Rmadhan.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17109]

The Holy Quran mentions the Grand Night in these beautiful
words:

“Surely We revealed it (the Holy Quran) on the grand night.
And what will make you comprehend what the grand night. The grand night is
better than a thousand months. The angels and Gabriel descend in it by the
permission of their Lord for every affair, Peace! It is till the break of the
morning.”  [97: 1-5]

1.13:
QIYAM-UL-LAIL/NIGHT PRAYERS

 

Observing the night in prayers is strongly recommended by
the
Messenger
of Allah (Be His blessings and peace upon him).

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him)
narrates that the Messenger of Allah
(May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) said: “Whoever
watches night  in prayers, in Ramadhan,
with good faith and  expectancy, his
previous sins would be forgiven.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.10855, Sahih Bukhari:H.2012,Sahih Muslim:H.761]  

Abdur
Rahman bin Auf (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of
Allah  (May Allah shower His blessings
and peace be on him) said: “ Verily, Allah Azza wa Jall enjoined the fasting in
Ramadhan and I make the watching its nights in prayers, a Sunnah, whoever fasts
in Rmadhan and watches its nights in prayers, with good

faith and expectancy, he expels out
of his sins, as the day when his mother begot him.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.1660,Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1328]

Ayeshah
Siddiqa (May Allah be pleased with her) says: “The Prophet (May Allah
shower His blessings and peace be on him) came out one night and offered
prayers  in Masjid and many people said
prayers  with him. In the morning these
people told others that the Prophet came out and said prayers in Masjid late at
night. The next day he did the same and more people prayed with him. In the
morning these people told others about that. Then more people gathered on the
third night and he came out and offered prayers with people. On the fourth
night  as many   people gathered that Masjid  was filled thoroughly and no space left for
more people. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him)
did not come out to them. Then he came out for Morning Prayers, when the prayer
was over he stood among the people and
said to them: ‘Surely I saw what you did at night, but nothing prevented
me from coming out to you, save that I feared that [that prayer] would be made
obligatory upon you.”
[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25876, Sahih Bukhari:H.2009,Sahih Muslim:H.760]  

Ayeshah
Siddiqa (May Allah be pleased with her) says: ” People used to say prayers
in Masjid of Allah’s Messenger. The man who had memorized any part of the
Quran, got round about five or six men and they said prayers collectively. In a
night of Ramadhan the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on
him) ordered her to install a barrier on her room entrance and she did so. Then
the  Prophet (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace be on him) came out
to them  after Esha prayers and he
offered night prayers and the people present in Masjid at that time, prayed
with him till late at night. Then he entered her room and left the barrier in
its position. ……….”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.26838]  

Anas
bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that  the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings
and peace be on him) was offering night prayers in Ramadhan. I came and stood
behind him. Afterwards a man came and stood beside me. Then another man came
even we were a group.

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.13043, Sahih Muslim:H.1104]

Abu
Zar al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that we fasted in
Ramadhan along with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on
him).He did not offered (night prayers) with us (i.e in congregation) till the
seven nights of the month left. (On 23rd night) he offered night
prayers with us even one third of night elapsed. He did not offered (night
prayers) with us on 24th night. Then he offered prayers with us next
night (25th) even half of the night elapsed. We said to him,” O’
Messenger of Allah! Why should you not offer prayers with us for rest of the
night. “ He said,” When a man offers (night) prayers and returns, he is
rewarded for rest of the night too.” He did not offered (night prayers) with us
on 26th night. Then on 27th night , he offered with us
night prayers, even he called his family members and people gathered too. He
offered prayers with us even we were afraid that al-Falah may be missed. The
narrator says, asked him(Abu Zar) what is al-Falah? He said,” as-Sahoor(Meal
before true dawn).
[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21778,Sunan Abu Dawood:H.1375, Jamea al-Tirmidhi:H.806,
Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1327, Sunan al-Nasaye:H.202, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2206,
Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.2547]   

Abu
Zar al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him)
narrates that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be
on him) sat in Masjid for ITIKAF in the last decade of Ramadhan.On 22nd
day of Ramadhan,  after offering  Asr Prayers he announced ,” We shall watch
this night in prayers In sha Allah. Whoever wants to watch , he may watch.”  It was 23rd night, when he offered
(Traweeh) in congregation,  after Esha
prayers, even one third of night elapsed (in prayers), then he returned . On 24th
night he did not offer Taraweeh prayers. On 24th day of Rmadhan,
,  after offering  Asr Prayers he announced ,” We shall watch
this night in prayers In sha Allah. Whoever wants to watch , he may watch.”  It was 25th  night, when he offered (Traweeh) prayers with
people, even one third of night elapsed (in prayers), then he returned. On 26h
night he did not offer Taraweeh prayers. On 26th day of
Ramadhan,  after offering  Asr Prayers he announced ,” We shall watch
this night in prayers In sha Allah. Whoever wants to watch, he may watch.” We
got prepared for prayers. Then we offered Taraweeh prayers ,even two third of
night elapsed (in prayers), then he returned to his camp that was fixed in
Masjid. I said to him, “ We love to say prayers with you till morning. He (May
Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) said,” O’ Abu

Zar! When you offer prayers behind
your Imam (leader) and return, reward of offering prayers whole night is
written for you.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.21842]  

May Allah
help us to follow His injunctions and fulfill our covenant as Muslims.  Ameen.

 

 

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