June 22, 2024

In the Name of Allah—the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

 

Divine Programming and Organic Evolution

Organic evolution, often referred to simply as evolution,
is the process of change and diversification of life forms over generations. It
is a fundamental concept in biology that explains the patterns and mechanisms
by which species arise, adapt, and become extinct. Organic evolution might be
referred to as Divine Programming for the diversity of life on Earth.

What is Speciation?

Speciation is the process by which new species arise from
existing ones. It is a fundamental concept in evolutionary biology, explaining
how the incredible diversity of life on Earth has emerged over millions of
years.
Biologists believe that new species arise through natural
selection.


Speciation is the process by which new species arise from existing ones. It is
a fundamental concept in evolutionary biology, explaining how the incredible
diversity of life on Earth has emerged over millions of years.

Speciation occurs when populations of a species become reproductively isolated from one another, meaning they can no longer interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Reproductive isolation can arise through various mechanisms, including geographical barriers, genetic changes, or differences in behavior or mating preferences.

What is Natural Selection?

Biologists define natural selection as the process by which
certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over
successive generations due to differential survival and reproduction. It is considered
one of the key mechanisms driving evolution.

Natural selection is considered a deterministic process
guided by the fitness of individuals within a population. Individuals with
traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success are more likely to
pass those traits on to the next generation. In contrast, individuals with
traits that reduce their fitness are less likely to contribute their genetic
material to future generations. Over time, this non-random differential
reproductive success leads to the accumulation of advantageous traits in a
population, while less beneficial traits become less common or may be lost
altogether.

The basic principles of natural selection can
be summarized as follows:

Variation:

1.      Individuals within a
population exhibit variation in traits. This variation can be due to genetic
differences or environmental factors.

Heredity:

Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genetic
inheritance. Offspring tend to resemble their parents in certain traits.

Differential
fitness:

Certain traits provide advantages or disadvantages to
individuals in terms of survival and reproduction. Individuals with traits that
are better suited to their environment have higher fitness, which means they
are more likely to survive and produce offspring.

Selective pressure:

Environmental factors, such as predation, competition for
resources, or changes in climate, create selective pressures that favor
individuals with certain advantageous traits. These pressures determine which
traits are more likely to be passed on to future generations.

Reproduction:

Individuals with higher fitness have a greater chance of
reproducing and passing on their advantageous traits to their offspring. Over
time, these traits become more prevalent in the population.

Biologists believe that through the
accumulation of small changes over long periods of time, natural selection can
lead to the development of new species with adaptations that are well-suited to
their particular environments. It is important to note that natural selection
is a non-random process, as it favors traits that increase an organism’s
chances of survival and reproduction while eliminating or reducing traits that
are less advantageous.

Variations in Populations

Variations in populations refer to the differences in traits and
characteristics observed among individuals within a particular group or
species. These variations can occur in numerous aspects, including physical
traits, physiological characteristics, behaviors, and genetic makeup.
Understanding variations in populations is crucial in the fields of biology,
ecology, and evolutionary science, as it provides insights into the diversity,
adaptation, and dynamics of life.

Variations in populations can arise through multiple mechanisms:

Genetic Variation:

Genetic variation refers to differences in the DNA sequences
among individuals. These variations can occur due to mutations, which are
random changes in the DNA sequence, as well as through genetic recombination
during sexual reproduction. Genetic variation is the foundation for all other
forms of variation in populations.

Phenotypic Variation:

Phenotypic variation encompasses the observable traits and
characteristics of individuals, which result from the interaction between
genetic and environmental factors. These traits can include physical features
(such as body size, coloration, or shape), physiological traits (such as
metabolism or immune response), and behavioral traits (such as mating rituals
or foraging strategies). Phenotypic variation can be influenced by both genetic
differences and environmental factors such as nutrition, climate, or social
interactions.

Geographic Variation:

Geographic variation refers to variations in populations that
occur across different geographic regions. Environmental factors, such as
climate, habitat type, or resource availability, can contribute to geographic
variations. For instance, populations of the same species living in different
regions may exhibit variations in coloration or body size as adaptations to
local environmental conditions.

Temporal Variation:

Temporal variation
refers to variations observed within a population over time. This can include
fluctuations in the abundance of certain traits or changes in the frequency of
genetic variants within a population. Temporal variations can result from
natural selection, genetic drift, or changes in environmental conditions.

Studying variations in populations is essential for
understanding biodiversity, ecological interactions, and the dynamics of populations
over time. It allows scientists to investigate the factors that influence the
distribution and persistence of traits within and between populations,
providing insights into evolutionary processes, population genetics, and
conservation strategies. By examining variations, scientists can gain a deeper
understanding of the intricate and diverse nature of life on Earth.

Genus Panthera: A Case Study

Phenotypic variation in species of the genus Panthera, which
includes big cats such as lions (Panthera leo), tigers (Panthera
tigris
), leopards (Panthera pardus), and jaguars (Panthera onca),
can be observed in various aspects of their morphology and coloration. Here are
some examples:

big cats

 

Coat Color and Pattern:

Different species of Panthera exhibit distinct coat
colorations and patterns. Lions, for instance, have tawny fur, while tigers
display a characteristic orange coat with black stripes. Leopards have a
spotted coat pattern, and jaguars have a distinctive rosette pattern. Within
each species, there can also be variations in coat coloration, with some
individuals having lighter or darker shades.

Body Size and Structure:

Phenotypic variation can also be observed in the size and
structure of these big cat species. Tigers, for example, display a considerable
size range, with males typically larger and heavier than females. Additionally,
there are regional variations in body size among tiger populations. Similarly,
there can be differences in body size and proportions between subspecies or
populations of lions, leopards, and jaguars.

Mane Development in Lions:

Among lions, males exhibit sexual dimorphism with the
development of a mane. However, the extent and appearance of the mane can vary
between individuals. Some males have large, dark, and full manes, while others
may have smaller or lighter manes. The color and size of the mane can also vary
among subspecies.

Facial Features:

Each species of Panthera has its characteristic facial features, including variations in the shape of the head, size of the nose, arrangement of facial markings, and the presence or absence of distinctive facial expressions. These variations contribute to the unique appearance and
identity of individuals within each species.

It’s important to note that these examples illustrate some of the phenotypic variations observed in the Panthera genus, but there can be additional variations in other traits such as body shape, claw length, or skull structure. Phenotypic variations can result from genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They contribute to the diversity and adaptability of these big cat species, allowing them to thrive in different habitats and ecological niches.

The ability of
different species within the genus Panthera to hybridize and produce
fertile offspring in captivity provides evidence for their common ancestry and
the process of speciation.

The fact that species like lions, tigers,
leopards, and jaguars can interbreed and produce viable offspring in captivity
indicates that they share a recent evolutionary history and belong to the same
clade or lineage. This ability to hybridize successfully is due to the close
genetic relatedness and similarity in their genomes.

However, in nature, these species do not
interbreed and produce fertile offspring. This reproductive isolation is a key
characteristic of distinct species. Reproductive barriers can prevent the gene
flow between populations and lead to the divergence of species over time.

The reproductive barriers between species can
be in various forms, including geographical barriers, differences in mating
behaviors or reproductive timing, or genetic incompatibilities. These barriers
prevent or reduce successful interbreeding in the wild and contribute to the
formation of separate species.

The process of speciation occurs over long
periods of time as populations become reproductively isolated and accumulate
genetic and phenotypic differences. As the populations diverge, they can evolve
distinct adaptations to their specific environments, leading to the emergence
of new species.

The ability to produce fertile offspring when
closely related species are in captivity suggests that speciation in the Panthera
genus occurred relatively recently in evolutionary terms. The shared ancestry
and genetic compatibility among these species indicate that they diverged from
a common ancestor, likely a single species, at some point in the past.

The observational data and scientific evidence strongly suggest
a common ancestry among lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars, rather than
independent creation. Here are some key points that support the idea of a
shared evolutionary history:

Morphological and Genetic Similarities:

Lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars share numerous
morphological and genetic similarities. They all belong to the same genus, Panthera,
and exhibit similar anatomical features that distinguish them from other
species. Their skeletal structures, dentition, and muscular systems share
common characteristics, indicating a close evolutionary relationship.

Molecular and Genetic Studies:

Molecular studies, such as DNA sequencing and analysis, provide
strong evidence for the shared ancestry of these big cat species. Comparisons
of their genetic material reveal significant genetic similarities and patterns
of relatedness. These genetic studies consistently support the hypothesis that
lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars are closely related and have a common
ancestry.

Hybridization and Fertility:

As mentioned earlier, in captivity, these big cat species can
interbreed and produce fertile offspring. This ability to hybridize
successfully provides direct evidence for their close genetic relationship and
shared evolutionary history. The fact that their hybrids are fertile indicates
a recent divergence and the retention of genetic compatibility.

Biogeographic Distribution:

Lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars have distinct but
overlapping geographic ranges. Their distributions suggest a historical connection
and a common evolutionary origin. These species inhabit different regions but
often share habitats adjacent to one another, indicating the potential for past
interactions and shared ancestry.

Fossil Record:

The fossil record provides additional evidence for the common ancestry of these big cat species. Fossil remains of extinct Panthera species and their transitional forms provide insights into the evolutionary history and gradual divergence of these species over time. Fossils help trace the evolutionary lineage and establish the connections between different
species.

It is important to note that the scientific understanding of the evolutionary relationships among species is based on a combination of multiple lines of evidence, including genetics, comparative anatomy, biogeography, and the fossil record. These lines of evidence consistently support the notion of a shared ancestry among lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars.

While individual beliefs and perspectives may differ, the scientific consensus, based on empirical evidence, strongly supports the theory of common descent and the concept of shared ancestry among closely related species. The evidence indicates that these big cats did not originate independently but rather diverged from a common ancestor and have undergone separate evolutionary paths. This process is referred to as micro-evolution.

Genetic Mutations:

New genetic variations arise through mutations, which are random
changes in the DNA sequence. These mutations can introduce new traits or
variations within a population.

One of the strongest pieces of evidence for genetic mutations
comes from the field of genetics, where scientists have extensively studied and
documented various types of mutations. Here are some key points that highlight
the existence and impact of genetic mutations:

genetic mutations

 

Experimental Observations:

Scientists have conducted numerous experiments that demonstrate
the occurrence of genetic mutations. For example, laboratory studies using
model organisms like fruit flies, mice, or bacteria have intentionally induced
mutations through exposure to radiation, chemicals, or other mutagens. These
experiments have consistently shown that mutations can alter the genetic
information of organisms.

Human Genetic Disorders:

Genetic mutations are responsible for a wide range of human
genetic disorders. Many well-known conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle
cell anemia, Huntington’s disease, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, are caused
by specific mutations in particular genes. These mutations can be identified
and studied to understand their effects on the phenotype and the underlying
molecular mechanisms.

Genetic Variation in Natural Populations:

Natural populations exhibit extensive genetic variation, which
is a result of ongoing genetic mutations. Genetic studies, such as genome
sequencing projects, have revealed millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms
(SNPs) and other genetic variations within human and other species genomes.
These variations arise from mutations that have occurred throughout
evolutionary history.

Evolutionary Significance:

Genetic mutations play a fundamental role in driving
evolutionary processes. Mutations provide the raw material for genetic
variation, which is essential for natural selection and adaptation. New
mutations introduce novel traits into populations, and through selection,
certain beneficial mutations can increase in frequency over time, leading to
the evolution of new traits and the formation of new species.

Experimental Evolution:

In laboratory settings, scientists have conducted long-term
experimental evolution studies with microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeast,
to observe the effects of genetic mutations. These experiments involve
subjecting populations to controlled conditions and tracking the accumulation
and impact of mutations over generations. Such studies have provided direct
evidence of mutations driving evolutionary changes.

DNA Sequencing Technologies:

The development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies has revolutionized the field of genetics. High-throughput sequencing allows scientists to rapidly and accurately sequence entire genomes, enabling the identification of mutations with greater precision. These technologies have greatly expanded our understanding of the frequency, distribution, and types of mutations occurring within populations.

Collectively, these lines of evidence strongly support the existence and significance of genetic mutations. Mutations are a well-established phenomenon, observed both in controlled laboratory settings and in natural populations. Their occurrence and impact are central to our
understanding of genetics, evolution, and the diversity of life.

 

Adaptations

Adaptation acts on the genetic variation within a population,
favoring individuals with traits that enhance their survival and reproductive
success. This leads to the increased frequency of beneficial traits over time.

Adaptation

 

Here are some examples of adaptations found in the natural
world:

Camouflage:

Many organisms have developed camouflage adaptations to blend in
with their surroundings. For instance, the peppered moth in England has two
color morphs—one light and one dark. During the Industrial Revolution, when
pollution darkened the environment, the dark morph became more prevalent as it
was better camouflaged on soot-covered trees.

Mimicry:

Mimicry is when one species evolves to resemble another species.
For example, the viceroy butterfly has evolved to mimic the toxic monarch
butterfly, gaining protection from predators by appearing unpalatable.

Structural Adaptations:

Various organisms have structural adaptations that enhance their
survival. The long neck of giraffes allows them to reach high leaves for food,
while the streamlined bodies and fins of fish enable efficient movement through the water.

Behavioral Adaptations:

Organisms often exhibit behavioral adaptations that improve
their chances of survival. The migration of birds over long distances to find
suitable breeding grounds and food sources is an example of a behavioral
adaptation.

Physiological Adaptations:

Physiological adaptations are internal changes that allow
organisms to cope with their environment. For instance, the ability of desert
animals like camels to conserve water by producing concentrated urine is a
physiological adaptation to arid conditions.

Biochemical Adaptations:

Organisms can have biochemical adaptations to survive in extreme
environments. Extremophiles, such as bacteria found in hot springs or deep-sea
hydrothermal vents, have enzymes that function optimally under extreme
temperature and pressure conditions.

Sensory Adaptations:

Many organisms have developed specialized sensory adaptations.
The long trunks of elephants are an example of a sensory adaptation as they are
used for smelling, breathing, touching, and grasping objects.

Reproductive Adaptations:

Reproductive adaptations improve an organism’s reproductive success. The bright and elaborate plumage of male peafowls (peacocks) is an example of a reproductive adaptation that attracts mates.

These examples demonstrate the diverse range of adaptations found in nature. Adaptations can arise through natural selection acting on heritable variations within a population, allowing organisms to survive and reproduce more effectively in their environments.

 

 

Genetic Drift:

Genetic drift refers to random fluctuations in the frequency of
genetic variants within a population. It can be particularly influential in
small populations, where chance events can have a significant impact on allele
frequencies.

Genetic drift is a random process that can lead to changes in
the frequency of genetic variants within a population over time. Here are a few
examples of genetic drift in action:

Founder Effect:

When a small group of individuals migrates and establishes a new
population, the genetic composition of the new population may be different from
the original population due to chance. This is known as the founder effect. For
example, the Amish population in the United States is descended from a small
number of founders, resulting in a higher frequency of certain genetic
disorders in their community.

Bottleneck Effect:

A bottleneck effect occurs when a population undergoes a drastic
reduction in size, leading to a loss of genetic diversity. The surviving
individuals may have a different genetic composition than the original
population. For instance, the northern elephant seal population went through a
severe bottleneck, with only a few individuals remaining in the 19th century.
As a result, the genetic diversity of the current population is significantly
reduced compared to their ancestors.

Genetic Drift in Small Populations:

Genetic drift is more pronounced in small populations where
chance events can have a greater impact on allele frequencies. For example, in
a small population of butterflies, a strong storm may randomly kill a
significant portion of individuals, leading to a change in allele frequencies
due to the survivors’ genetic makeup.

Neutral Mutations:

Genetic drift can play a role in the fate of neutral mutations
that neither confers an advantage nor a disadvantage to individuals. Due to
random fluctuations in allele frequencies, neutral mutations can become fixed
(reach a frequency of 100%) or lost from a population over time. The specific
alleles that become fixed or lost can vary due to chance, contributing to
genetic drift.

Genetic Drift in Isolated Populations:

Genetic drift is more influential in isolated populations with limited gene flow. When populations become separated by geographical barriers or other factors, genetic drift can have a significant impact on their genetic makeup. Over time, isolated populations may diverge genetically, leading to the formation of new species.

These examples illustrate how genetic drift can influence the genetic composition of populations. Unlike natural selection, which acts on traits that provide a survival or reproductive advantage, genetic drift is driven by chance events and can lead to random changes in allele frequencies.

 

Gene Flow:

Gene flow refers to the movement of genes from one population to
another through the migration of individuals or the transfer of gametes
(reproductive cells). It can occur between populations of the same species, and
it plays a significant role in shaping the genetic diversity of populations.
Here are some examples of gene flow:

Animal Migration:

Many animal species undertake seasonal migrations, moving from
one region to another. During these migrations, individuals from one population
may interbreed with individuals from another population, resulting in gene
flow. For example, the migration of wildebeest in Africa allows for gene flow
between different herds.

Pollen Transfer in Plants:

In plants, gene flow can occur through the transfer of pollen
between different populations. Pollinators, such as bees, butterflies, or
birds, carry pollen from one plant to another, facilitating gene exchange. This
is particularly common in flowering plants that rely on animal pollinators for
reproduction.

Human Migration:

Human migration has played a significant role in gene flow
throughout history. As humans move from one geographic region to another, they
bring their genetic material with them and can interbreed with local
populations. This has led to gene flow between different human populations,
contributing to the genetic diversity observed in human populations today.

Ocean Currents and Aquatic Species:

Gene flow can occur in aquatic environments through the movement
of ocean currents. For example, fish or other marine organisms may release eggs
or larvae that are carried by ocean currents, allowing genes to flow between
populations that are geographically separated.

Hybridization:

Hybridization is a form of gene flow that occurs when
individuals from different species interbreed and produce hybrid offspring.
This can happen when closely related species come into contact and their reproductive
barriers break down. Hybridization can lead to gene exchange and the transfer
of genetic traits between species.

Human-Mediated Gene Flow:

In addition to natural mechanisms, gene flow can also be facilitated by human activities. For example, the deliberate introduction of individuals from one population to another, such as the translocation of animals for conservation purposes can result in gene flow between populations that were previously isolated.

These examples demonstrate how gene flow can occur through various mechanisms and contribute to genetic mixing and diversity within and between populations. Gene flow plays a crucial role in preventing genetic isolation and facilitating the exchange of genetic material, which can have important implications for the adaptation and evolution of species.

Modes of Speciation

There are two primary modes of speciation:

Allopatric Speciation:

This occurs when populations become geographically separated,
often due to the formation of a physical barrier such as a mountain range,
river, or ocean. The isolated populations experience different environmental
conditions and may undergo genetic changes through mutation, genetic drift, or
natural selection. Over time, these changes can accumulate and lead to
reproductive isolation. If the populations come into contact again after a long
period of separation, they may be reproductively isolated and considered distinct species.

Sympatric Speciation:

This occurs when new species arise within the same geographical area without any physical barriers. It often involves the development of reproductive isolation through non-geographical factors such as ecological differentiation or behavioral changes. For example, if individuals within a population develop distinct mating preferences or adapt to different ecological niches, they may mate preferentially with individuals who share those traits.
Over time, this can lead to the formation of separate groups that no longer interbreed, resulting in the formation of new species.

Speciation is a gradual process that can take place over long periods of time, involving the accumulation of genetic and phenotypic changes. It is important to note that the formation of new species does not necessarily require dramatic changes or the evolution of completely new traits. It can occur through subtle shifts in genetic frequencies and reproductive compatibility.

Two Levels of Evolution

There are two levels of evolution:

1.
Micro-evolution

2.
Macro-evolution

Micro-evolution

Micro-evolution refers to small-scale changes that occur
within a population over relatively short periods of time. It involves shifts
in the frequency of genetic variants or alleles within a population, leading to
changes in the traits or characteristics of individuals. Micro-evolutionary
processes can be observed and studied directly within the span of a few
generations.

Macro-evolution

Macroevolution is also known as adaptive radiation. Adaptive
radiation refers to the rapid diversification of a single ancestral lineage
into multiple different species.

Macro-evolution can be summarized as follows:
The macro-evolution describes the history of life on Earth, starting with the
emergence of prokaryotes (simple organisms lacking a nucleus) billions of years
ago. Eukaryotic cells (cells with a nucleus) later evolved, and a significant
change occurred when bacteria were engulfed by eukaryotic cells in a process
called endosymbiosis, leading to the formation of mitochondria and
chloroplasts. Multicellular organisms appeared around 610 million years ago,
followed by a rapid diversification known as the Cambrian explosion. Plants,
fungi, arthropods, and other animals colonized land, with insects becoming
particularly successful.

Proponents of macro-evolution believe that the rise of complex
multicellular organisms from existing simple unicellular organisms represents a
significant milestone in the history of organic evolution. This transition
occurred over a long period of time and involved various biological innovations
and adaptations.

Unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and
archaea, have inhabited the Earth for billions of years. These organisms
consist of a single cell that carries out all the necessary functions for
survival, including reproduction, metabolism, and obtaining nutrients. They
have relatively simple structures and limited cellular specialization.

The emergence of complex multicellular
organisms brought about a new level of biological organization and complexity.
It involved the evolution of specialized cell types, cellular cooperation, and
increased cellular differentiation. Rather than functioning as independent
entities, cells within multicellular organisms work together and perform
specific tasks to support the survival and reproduction of the whole organism.

The transition from unicellularity to
multicellularity likely occurred through various evolutionary pathways. It is
believed that early steps involved the aggregation of individual cells, where
groups of cells began to stick together. This aggregation could have provided
advantages such as enhanced nutrient uptake, protection from predation, and
improved reproduction.

Over time, these cell aggregates evolved
mechanisms to ensure cooperation and coordination among cells, leading to the
development of more complex multicellular structures. This required the
evolution of specialized cell types with specific functions, such as
reproductive cells, feeding cells, or support cells.

The evolution of multicellularity enabled
organisms to occupy new ecological niches and take advantage of new resources.
Complex multicellular organisms could develop more sophisticated ways of
interacting with their environment, including the ability to move, sense their
surroundings, and respond to stimuli.

The rise of complex multicellular organisms
was a crucial step in the diversification of life on Earth. It allowed for the
evolution of diverse body plans, organ systems, and complex life cycles.
Through subsequent evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and
genetic variation, multicellular organisms continued to evolve and give rise to
a wide array of life forms, including plants, fungi, and animals.

Today, complex
multicellular organisms dominate the planet, exhibiting remarkable diversity in
form, function, and ecological adaptations. The transition from simple
unicellular organisms to complex multicellular life represents a remarkable
example of evolutionary innovation and showcases the immense potential of
biological complexity that has evolved over billions of years.

Conclusion

In our understanding micro-evolution (speciation) is a
scientific fact that can’t be rejected based on mere speculations. Micro-evolution
is not contradictory to Islamic teachings. So we are not going to deny
micro-evolution.  Micro-evolution is the
product of Divine Programming.

Indeed,
macro-evolutionary changes encompass far more complex processes than speciation
within a population. While speciation involves the emergence of new species
from a common ancestor, macro-evolution extends beyond this level of divergence
to encompass broader transformations in morphology, physiology, and ecological
interactions.

The origin of new body plans represents a
remarkable aspect of macro-evolution. It involves the evolution of fundamental
structural and organizational features that define the overall body
architecture of organisms. This can include the development of novel
appendages, skeletal structures, or specialized organs that enable new forms of
locomotion, feeding, or sensory perception. Such innovations often require
coordinated changes in multiple genes and developmental pathways, leading to
the emergence of distinct body plans seen in different groups of organisms.

Similarly, the development of complex organs
is another macro-evolutionary phenomenon that goes beyond simple speciation.
Complex organs are characterized by intricate structures and the functional
integration of multiple components. Examples include the vertebrate eye, insect
wings, or flowering plant reproductive structures.

The diversification of major taxonomic groups,
such as the branching of lineages leading to the evolution of mammals, birds,
or reptiles, is another aspect of macro-evolution that is distinct from
micro-evolution. This process involves the divergence of lineages into new
ecological niches and the subsequent accumulation of unique adaptations that
shape the characteristics and diversity of entire groups of organisms. It often
entails a series of speciation events, but it also involves broader
evolutionary trends and transformations that distinguish these taxonomic groups
from their ancestors.

Macro-evolutionary changes require not only
genetic variation but also integrated and coordinated changes in chromosome number and
karyotype. Random chance is unable to execute such outstanding changes.

William
A. Dembski rightly argues:

“The
following problems have proven utterly intractable not only for the
mutation-selection mechanism but also for any other undirected natural process
proposed to date: the origin of life, the origin of the genetic code
, the
origin of multicellular life, the origin of sexuality
, the
scarcity of transitional forms in the fossil record, the biological big bang
that occurred in the Cambrian era
, the development of
complex organ systems and the development of irreducibly complex molecular
machines.
  These are just a few
of the more serious difficulties that confront every theory of evolution that
posits only undirected natural processes.  It is thus sheer arrogance for
Darwinists like Richard Dawkins. . . to charge design theorists with being
ignorant or stupid or wicked or insane for denying the all-sufficiency of undirected
natural processes in biology.”
[1]



[1]
William
A.Dembaski, Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science & Theology,
p.113,

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