May 18, 2024
combining the prayers
In the Hanbali Madhab (school of Islamic jurisprudence), combining the prayers is allowed and practiced in the following cases:

In the Hanbali Madhab (school of Islamic jurisprudence), combining the prayers is allowed and practiced in the following cases:

  1. Hajj
  2. Lawful Traveling
  3. Severe Sickness
  4. Istihadha (Abnormal vaginal bleeding)
  5. Breastfeeding
  6. Extreme Weather Conditions

Imam Musa al-Hajjawi al-Hanbali (May Allah have mercy on him) said that combining prayers is not recommended but permissible, and saying prayers at specific times is Afdhal (preferable) in all cases, except combining the prayers during Hajj in Arafat and Muzdalifah, that is recommended.

[Al-Iqna’a:1/183]

Hajj

Combining the prayers during Hajj in Arafat and Muzdalifah is recommended by the consensus of Muslim scholars.

Lawful Traveling

Lawful traveling refers to traveling when a traveler travels with a lawful purpose and intends to cover at least 48 Hashimi miles (90 km app.), whatever the means of traveling.

Severe Sickness

A severe sickness refers to an ailment that causes severe weakness like high fever, or stroke, or pain and the sick find it hard to offer prayers without combining.

Istihadha (Abnormal vaginal bleeding)

Istihadhah refers to a condition when a female undergoes abnormal vaginal bleeding, so offering prayers five times for her is a hardship, that is leveled through permission of combining prayers.

Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding mothers find it hard to wash their impurified clothes time and again due to filth from their infants. That is why they are allowed to combine the prayers.

Extreme Weather Conditions

Extreme weather conditions like unusual snowfall, Cold Wind Storm, a thunderstorm wetting the clothes, is a valid excuse to combine the prayers in the Hanbali Madhab.

There are two scenarios for combining the prayers:

  1. Jama al-Taqdim: Combining the prayers at the time of the first prayer (e.g offering Dhuhr and Asr in the Dhuhr time)
  2. Jama al-Takhir: Combining the prayers after passing the time for the first prayer (e.g offering Dhuhr and Asr in the Asr time)

Pre-Requisites for Combining the Prayers

There are four prerequisites for Jama al-Taqdim:

  1. The intention of combining the prayers at the opening of the first prayer
  2. The sequence of the prayers
  3. Combining the two prayers without a long break
  4. Persisting the valid excuse at the beginning of both prayers

There are three prerequisites for Jama al-Takhir:

  1. The intention of combining the prayers at the opening of the first prayer
  2. The sequence of the prayer
  3. Persisting the valid excuse at the beginning of the time for the second prayer

Evidence for Combining Prayers

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, said: “Should I not inform you about the prayer of the Prophet (peace be upon him) during his journeys?” The audience replied, “Of course, please do.” Then Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, said: “If the Prophet (peace be upon him) reached the time of Dhuhr while he was still at his stopping place, he would combine Dhuhr and Asr before mounting his ride and then offer them together. And if the time of Dhuhr arrived while he was in transit (i.e., on his journey), he would continue his journey until the time of Asr began, then he would offer Dhuhr and Asr together. Similarly, if the time of Maghrib set in during his stay, he would combine Maghrib and Isha and offer them together. But if the time of Maghrib had not set in during his stay, he would continue traveling until the time of Isha began, then he would offer Maghrib and Isha together, in next stay”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad: H#3480]

Nafi’ narrates that Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both, combined Maghrib and Isha after the disappearance of the twilight and said: “When the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to travel, he would do the same.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad: H#4472]

It is narrated from Sayyidina Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Noble Prophet (peace be upon him) used to delay Dhuhr until Asr time if he mounted (his ride) before noon, then he would offer Dhuhr and Asr combined after the time of Asr.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad: H#13619, Sahih al-Bukhari: H#112, Sahih Muslim: H#704]

It is narrated from Sayyidina Mu’adh bin Jabal, may Allah be pleased with him, that during the expedition of Tabuk, it was the practice of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that if he mounted (his ride) before noon, he would delay Dhuhr and combine it with Asr, then offer them together. And if he set out after noon, he would first offer Dhuhr and Asr combined, then commence the journey. Similarly, if he set out before sunset, he would delay Maghrib and combine it with Isha, then offer them together. And if he set out after sunset, he would hasten with Isha and combine it with Maghrib, then offer them together.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad: H#22420, Sahih Muslim: H#706]

It is narrated from Sayyidah Hamnah bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her (regarding abnormal menstruation): “If you are capable, delay Dhuhr until the time of Asr begins, then perform the ghusl (ritual bath) and offer Dhuhr and Asr combined in the beginning time (of Asr). Then, if you are capable, delay Maghrib until the time of Isha begins, then perform the ghusl and offer both prayers combined in the beginning time (of Isha).”

[Sunan Abu Dawood: H#287]

It is narrated in the lengthy account of the Farewell Pilgrimage from Sayyidina Jabir bin Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed two prayers (Dhuhr and Asr) in the field of Arafat, combining them with one Adhan and two Iqamahs. Then, upon reaching Muzdalifah, he combined Maghrib and Isha prayers, again with one Adhan and two Iqamahs.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad]

It is narrated from Sayyidina Abu Ayyub Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) combined Maghrib and Isha prayers in Muzdalifah.

[Sunan al-Nusai: H#3026]

It is narrated from Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) combined Maghrib and Isha prayers in Muzdalifah, and the iqamah was pronounced for each prayer separately.

[Sahih al-Bukhari: H#1673]

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