June 22, 2024

In the Name of Allah—the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

The Islamic Economic System

The Islamic Economic System

The Islamic Economic System refers to an economic framework
based on the principles and teachings of Islam. It is rooted in the moral and
ethical values outlined in the Quran (the holy book of Islam) and the Hadith
(the sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him). Islamic
economics seeks to create an economic system that aligns with the broader
objectives of Islam, which include justice, equity, and social welfare.

Key features of the Islamic Economic System include:

Free Trade:

Islamic economics
promotes investments in real assets and productive activities rather than
speculative or non-productive ventures. It encourages entrepreneurship,
investment in infrastructure, and productive sectors of the economy. Selling
merchandise and services is generally allowed in this system without any
restrictions, exempting a few illegal articles like wine, pigs, and poisons.

Prohibition of Interest (Riba):

Islamic economics
prohibits the charging or payment of interest on loans. Instead, it encourages
profit-sharing arrangements and risk-sharing partnerships, where lenders and
borrowers share in the profits or losses of a venture.

Prohibition of Speculation (Gharar):

Islamic economics
discourages transactions that involve excessive uncertainty or speculation.
Contracts should be clear and transparent, and parties should have a genuine
understanding of the terms and conditions.

Wealth Distribution:

Islamic economics
advocates for equitable wealth distribution and aims to address income
disparities and poverty. It encourages the provision of social safety nets,
charitable giving (Zakat), and voluntary wealth redistribution to ensure the
well-being of society’s less fortunate members.

Emphasis on Real Assets:

Islamic economics
promotes investments in real assets and productive activities rather than
speculative or non-productive ventures. It encourages entrepreneurship,
investment in infrastructure, and productive sectors of the economy.


Ethical Guidelines:

Islamic economics
emphasizes ethical behavior in economic activities. It promotes honesty,
fairness, and accountability in business transactions. Unethical practices such
as fraud, exploitation, and deceit are strongly discouraged.


It is important to note that the implementation of an Islamic
Economic System can vary across different countries and regions. While some
countries may adopt a more comprehensive approach to Islamic economics, others
may integrate certain principles within their existing economic systems.


The Quran Allows Free Trade

There are several verses in the Quran that
highlight the importance of trade and commerce.

For example, in Surah Al-Baqarah
(2:275), states, “Those who devour usury will not stand except as
stands one whom the devil has driven to madness by [his] touch. That is because
they say, ‘Trade is [just] like usury.’ But Allah has permitted trade and has
forbidden usury.
” This verse makes a clear distinction between usury (riba)
and trade, affirming that trade is permissible while usury is prohibited.

Additionally, the Quran encourages believers
to engage in lawful and beneficial economic activities.

Surah Al-Baqarah (2:198) states, “There is no blame
upon you for seeking bounty from your Lord [during Hajj]. But when you depart
from ‘Arafat, remember Allah at al- Mash’ar al-Haram. And remember Him, as He
has guided you, for indeed, you were before that among those astray.

This verse refers to seeking provisions and
sustenance during the pilgrimage (Hajj), indicating that economic activity,
including trade, is a normal and permissible part of life.

It is important to note that while Islam
supports free trade, it also emphasizes ethical conduct, fairness, and justice
in economic transactions. Islamic principles prohibit fraud, exploitation,
deceit, and any unfair practices in trade. Islam encourages mutual consent,
transparency, and equitable dealings between buyers and sellers, ensuring that
both parties benefit from the trade transaction.

Prohibition of Riba

Islamic economics
rejects the concept of charging or paying interest, which is known as Riba.
This prohibition is based on the belief that interest-based transactions lead
to exploitation, inequality, and economic instability. Instead, Islamic
economics promotes alternative modes of financing that are rooted in
profit-sharing and risk-sharing principles.

There are two main types of Riba:

1. Riba al-Nasi’ah

2. Riba al-Fadl

Riba al-Nasi’ah

Riba al-Nasi’ah, also known as “Riba al-Jahiliyyah” or simply “Riba,” refers to the concept of usury or interest charged on loans. It is one of the major prohibited forms of Riba in Islamic finance.

Riba al-Nasi’ah specifically refers to the increment or increase in the repayment amount that is charged by a lender to a borrower in exchange for a deferred payment period. It occurs when a lender imposes an additional amount or interest on top of the principal loan amount as compensation for the time value of money.

In Islamic finance, Riba is strictly prohibited based on the teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah (traditions) of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Riba is considered exploitative and unjust, as it allows one party to benefit at the expense of the other without engaging in any productive economic activity.

Islamic economics promotes alternative financing models that are based on profit-sharing and risk-sharing principles rather than charging or paying interest. These alternative modes, such as Musharakah (partnership), Mudarabah (profit-sharing), and Murabahah (cost-plus financing), aim to ensure fairness and equitable distribution of wealth while fostering economic growth and development within the boundaries of Islamic principles.

It is important to note that the prohibition of Riba is a central tenet of Islamic finance, and adhering to this principle is a fundamental aspect of conducting financial transactions in accordance with Islamic law.

Riba al-Fadl

Riba al-Fadl, also known as “Riba al-Buyu,” is another form of prohibited Riba (usury) in Islamic finance. It refers to the excess or surplus gained in an exchange of similar commodities of the same type, quantity, and immediate delivery.

Narrated Abu Bakra (may Allah be pleased with him):

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Don’t sell gold for gold unless equal in weight, nor silver for silver unless equal in weight, but you could sell gold for silver or silver for gold as you like.

[Sahih al-Bukhari: H#2175]

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

Do not sell gold for gold and silver for silver weight for weight or of the same quality.

Riba al-Fadl occurs when a transaction involves an exchange of goods, and one party receives an additional quantity or quality of the goods in return for delaying the delivery or payment. This additional benefit or surplus gained is considered exploitative and unjust according to Islamic principles.

To understand Riba al-Fadl, consider an example: A person wants to exchange 1 kg of gold for 1 kg of gold but insists on receiving an additional 100 grams of gold as part of the transaction. This additional amount is considered Riba al-Fadl, as it goes beyond the equal exchange of the same commodity and quantity.

Islamic finance emphasizes the principle of equal exchange and fairness in transactions. Riba al-Fadl violates this principle by creating an imbalance and granting an undue advantage to one party. Therefore, it is strictly prohibited in Islamic finance and is considered a form of usury.

In order to comply with Islamic principles, transactions should be conducted on the basis of fair exchange, where the goods are exchanged in equal amounts and without any additional benefits or surplus that could be perceived as Riba al-Fadl.

By avoiding Riba al-Fadl and adhering to the principles of fairness and equity, Islamic finance aims to foster an ethical and just economic system that respects the rights and well-being of all parties involved in transactions.

Profit-sharing arrangements, such as Mudarabah
and Musharakah, are commonly used in Islamic finance. In a Mudarabah
contract, one party provides the capital (the investor or “rabb al-mal“),
while the other party contributes labor and expertise (the entrepreneur or
mudarib“). The profits generated from the venture are shared
between the parties based on a pre-agreed ratio, while the losses are borne
primarily by the investor. However, an entrepreneur gets loss in the form of useless

Musharakah, on the other hand, is a partnership arrangement where all
parties contribute capital and expertise to a project. Profits are distributed
among the partners based on an agreed-upon ratio, while losses are shared
according to the ratio of their contributions. This system promotes a fair
sharing of risks and rewards between the parties involved.

Islamic economics also encourages other
financing models, such as Ijarah (leasing), Murabaha (cost-plus
financing), and Istisna (contract-based manufacturing). These models
provide alternative mechanisms for acquiring assets or financing transactions
without the use of interest.

By emphasizing profit-sharing and risk-sharing
arrangements, Islamic economics aims to promote fairness, equity, and a sense
of shared responsibility between the lender and borrower. It aligns with the
principles of cooperation, trust, and mutual benefit while discouraging
exploitative practices that may arise from a purely interest-based system.

It’s important to note that Islamic finance
institutions and scholars have developed specific mechanisms and guidelines to
structure transactions in accordance with these principles. These institutions
have created a range of financial products and services, such as Islamic
banking, Islamic bonds (Sukuk), and Islamic insurance (Takaful),
to cater to individuals and businesses seeking Sharia-compliant financial

Prohibition of Speculation

Islamic economics promotes
clarity, transparency, and avoiding excessive uncertainty or speculation in
economic transactions. This principle is known as Gharar, which refers
to ambiguity or uncertainty in contractual terms that may lead to unfairness or

Islamic economics emphasizes the importance of
clear and transparent contracts where the terms and conditions are explicitly
stated and easily understood by all parties involved. Contracts should be based
on mutual consent and understanding to ensure fairness and prevent any
potential exploitation or misunderstanding.

The concept of Gharar discourages
transactions that involve excessive uncertainty, ambiguity, or speculation.
This includes transactions where the subject matter, price, or key details are
unclear or subject to chance. Examples of transactions that fall into the realm
of excessive uncertainty or speculation include gambling, games of chance,
speculative derivatives, and contracts with unclear or unknown outcomes.

Instead, Islamic economics encourages
contracts that are based on tangible assets and known variables, ensuring that
parties have a genuine understanding of the terms and conditions. This promotes
economic stability, reduces risk, and prevents unjust enrichment.

To ensure compliance with the principle of Gharar,
Islamic finance institutions have developed specific guidelines and criteria
for structuring contracts. These guidelines aim to eliminate ambiguity, provide
clarity, and minimize uncertainty in financial and commercial transactions. The
contracts and financial products offered by Islamic finance institutions often
undergo a thorough review by Sharia scholars to ensure they adhere to the
principles of Gharar and other Islamic ethical guidelines.

By emphasizing
clarity, transparency, and the avoidance of excessive uncertainty, Islamic
economics seeks to create an economic environment that promotes fairness,
integrity, and mutual understanding between parties. This principle aims to
protect individuals and society from potential exploitation and ensure that
economic transactions are conducted in a just and ethical manner.


Wealth Distribution

Islamic economics
places a strong emphasis on equitable wealth distribution and addressing income
disparities and poverty. It recognizes that wealth and resources are not meant
to be concentrated in the hands of a few individuals but should be shared to
ensure the well-being and welfare of the entire society.

One of the key mechanisms through which
Islamic economics promotes equitable wealth distribution is the concept of
Zakat. Zakat is an obligatory form of charitable giving in Islam, whereby
eligible individuals and businesses are required to donate a portion of their
wealth to those in need. It is considered one of the five pillars of Islam and
is seen as a means of purifying one’s wealth and fulfilling a social

Zakat is typically calculated as a percentage
of one’s accumulated wealth, including cash, savings, investments, and business
assets. The collected funds are then distributed to specific categories of
beneficiaries, such as the poor, the needy, debtors, those working in the Zakat
administration, and others outlined in Islamic jurisprudence. This practice
serves to alleviate poverty, provide social welfare, and bridge the wealth gap
in society.

In addition to Zakat, Islamic economics
encourages voluntary acts of charity and wealth redistribution. Muslims are
encouraged to engage in Sadaqah, which refers to voluntary acts of
giving that can be in the form of monetary contributions, assistance, or any
form of assistance to those in need. Sadaqah can be given to
individuals, charities, or used for community development projects. These
voluntary acts of charity further contribute to the objective of equitable
wealth distribution and addressing social inequalities.

Furthermore, Islamic economics promotes the
provision of social safety nets and welfare systems to ensure the well-being of
society’s less fortunate members. This can include programs such as healthcare,
education, unemployment benefits, and support for vulnerable groups. Islamic
teachings emphasize the importance of caring for the needy and vulnerable
members of society, and it is considered a collective responsibility of the
community to provide for their welfare.

By advocating for
equitable wealth distribution, encouraging Zakat and voluntary acts of charity,
and promoting social safety nets, Islamic economics aims to address income disparities,
reduce poverty, and foster a more just and compassionate society. These
principles align with the broader Islamic values of compassion, solidarity, and
social justice.


Emphasis on Real Assets

Islamic economics
places a strong emphasis on productive and real asset-based investments rather
than speculative or non-productive ventures. The underlying principle is to
promote economic growth, job creation, and the development of tangible assets
that contribute to the overall well-being of society.

One of the key concepts in Islamic economics
that support this principle is known as Halal (permissible) and Haram
(prohibited). Investments and economic activities are evaluated based on their
ethical and productive nature. Islamic economics encourages individuals and
businesses to engage in Halal investments, which include activities that are
lawful, beneficial, and contribute positively to the economy.

Entrepreneurship is highly encouraged in
Islamic economics. Islam recognizes the importance of innovation, enterprise,
and wealth creation through productive economic activities. Individuals are
encouraged to start businesses, generate employment opportunities, and
contribute to the growth and development of the economy. Entrepreneurship is
seen as a means of utilizing one’s talents, skills, and resources to create
value, stimulate economic activity, and foster economic prosperity.

Islamic economics also promotes investment in
infrastructure and productive sectors of the economy. Investing in projects
that enhance the productivity and capacity of an economy is encouraged. This
can include investments in sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing,
technology, education, healthcare, and infrastructure development. By investing
in these sectors, Islamic economics seeks to generate sustainable economic
growth, improve living standards, and create a solid foundation for the
long-term prosperity of society.

Furthermore, Islamic economics discourages
speculative and non-productive activities that do not contribute to real
economic growth. Speculation, excessive risk-taking, and gambling-like
practices are considered detrimental to the stability and fairness of the
economy. Instead, Islamic economics encourages investments that involve
tangible assets, promote value creation, and generate real economic benefits.

Overall, Islamic
economics promotes investments in real assets, productive activities,
entrepreneurship, and the development of infrastructure. These principles aim
to foster economic growth, job creation, and sustainable development while
discouraging activities that do not contribute to productive outcomes. By
focusing on tangible and beneficial investments, Islamic economics seeks to
build a robust and prosperous economy that benefits individuals, businesses,
and society as a whole.


The Islamic Business Models

There are six major business models:

Selling Goods

Selling Services





Investment in


Selling Goods

Islamic economics promotes the trade of merchandise as an
essential component of economic activity and wealth creation. It recognizes the
importance of legitimate and ethical trade in goods (merchandise) as a means to
meet the needs of individuals and society while adhering to Islamic principles.

In Islamic economics, the selling of merchandise is encouraged within the framework of
fairness, transparency, and mutual benefit. The principles of Halal (lawfulness) and ethical conduct govern the exchange of goods, ensuring that trade is conducted in a manner that upholds moral values and avoids prohibited transactions.

Some key principles and practices within Islamic economics that promote selling
merchandise include:

Fair Pricing:

Islamic economics encourages fair pricing practices in the sale
of merchandise. Sellers are urged to set reasonable and just prices that
reflect the value of the goods being traded. Unfair practices such as price
manipulation, price gouging, or monopolistic behaviors are discouraged.

Quality and Integrity:

 Islamic economics
emphasizes the importance of providing high-quality merchandise to customers.
Sellers are encouraged to maintain the integrity of the goods being sold,
ensuring they meet the specified standards and conform to the expectations of
buyers. This fosters trust between buyers and sellers and supports sustainable
trade relationships.

Ethical Sourcing:

Islamic economics promotes ethical sourcing practices in the
acquisition of merchandise. It encourages sellers to ensure that the goods they
trade are obtained through lawful means, respecting the rights of producers, workers,
and the environment. Unethical practices such as exploitation, forced labor, or
environmental harm are strictly prohibited.

Fair Competition:

 Islamic economics advocates for fair competition in the marketplace. Monopolistic practices, price fixing, or unfair market domination are discouraged. Fair competition ensures a level playing field for sellers, stimulates innovation, and benefits consumers.

Islamic economics recognizes the role of merchandise trade in economic development,
wealth creation, and meeting the needs of individuals and society. By adhering to principles of fairness, transparency, and ethical conduct, it seeks to promote a just and sustainable trade environment that benefits all stakeholders involved in the selling and buying of merchandise.


Selling Services

Islamic economics
recognizes the importance of providing services as a key component of economic
activity and societal well-being. While Islamic economics places emphasis on
the trade of tangible goods, it also promotes the exchange of services in a
manner that aligns with the principles of fairness, transparency, and mutual

Islamic economics encourages the provision of
services that are lawful (Halal) and beneficial to individuals and society.
Services that comply with ethical and moral standards are considered integral
to a thriving economy. This includes services in sectors such as healthcare,
education, finance, transportation, communication, technology, and more.

In Islamic economics, the exchange of services
is governed by the principles of fairness, equity, and transparency.
Transactions involving services should be clear, well-defined, and agreed upon
by all parties involved. Contracts or agreements should outline the scope of
services, duration, compensation, and any other relevant terms and conditions.

Islamic economics also emphasizes the concept
of value creation in the exchange of services. Service providers are encouraged
to deliver high-quality services that add value to individuals and society. By
offering valuable services, service providers can contribute to economic
growth, job creation, and the overall well-being of communities.

In the realm of Islamic finance, services play
a crucial role. Islamic financial institutions offer a wide range of services,
such as banking, investment, insurance, wealth management, and advisory
services. These services are designed to comply with Sharia principles,
avoiding interest-based transactions and adhering to ethical guidelines.

Furthermore, Islamic economics promotes the
fair compensation of service providers. In accordance with the principles of
justice and fairness, individuals or entities providing services should be
compensated appropriately for their efforts, skills, and expertise. Fair wages
and equitable compensation ensure the sustainability of service provision and
support the well-being of service providers.

Overall, Islamic
economics recognizes the significance of services in economic activity and
societal development. It promotes the exchange of Halal and beneficial services
in a manner that upholds principles of fairness, transparency, and mutual
benefit. By emphasizing value creation, fair compensation, and adherence to
ethical guidelines, Islamic economics aims to foster a thriving service sector
that contributes to the overall prosperity of individuals and society.


Musharakah is an
important concept in Islamic finance and economics. It refers to a form of
partnership where two or more parties pool their capital and resources to
undertake a business venture or investment. In Musharakah, partners share in
the profits, losses, and risks of the enterprise based on an agreed-upon ratio.

The primary characteristic of Musharakah
is the sharing of both capital and expertise among partners. Each partner
contributes capital to the venture, and they may also contribute skills,
knowledge, or labor, depending on their agreement. This joint contribution
fosters a sense of shared responsibility and cooperation, aligning with the
principles of fairness and mutual benefit in Islamic economics.

The profits generated from the Musharakah
venture are distributed among the partners based on the pre-determined ratio
agreed upon at the outset. This ratio can be equal or proportionate to the
respective contributions of each partner. It is worth noting that partners may
agree to allocate a portion of the profits for reinvestment in the business or
for charitable purposes.

Similarly, losses incurred in the Musharakah
are shared among the partners based on their respective ratios. This
risk-sharing feature reflects the idea that partners bear the consequences of
the venture collectively, thereby mitigating individual financial burdens. This
aspect promotes fair distribution of risks and encourages partners to work
together in managing and addressing challenges.

Musharakah partnerships can be utilized in various sectors and industries,
including trade, agriculture, real estate, and manufacturing. It can also be
employed for financing large projects or joint ventures where multiple parties
bring together their resources and expertise.

Islamic financial institutions often offer
Musharakah-based products and services, such as Musharakah Mutanaqisah
(Diminishing Musharakah) and Musharakah-based investment funds. In the
context of Diminishing Musharakah, the financial institution enters into
a partnership with the customer, where the institution gradually transfers its
ownership share to the customer over time, eventually making the customer the
sole owner.

Musharakah embodies the principles of cooperation,
risk-sharing, and shared prosperity in Islamic economics. It encourages
partnerships that combine financial resources, skills, and efforts to engage in
productive economic activities. Through Musharakah, Islamic economics
promotes equity, entrepreneurship, and the responsible utilization of
resources, fostering a participatory and socially responsible economic system.



Mudarabah is an important concept in Islamic finance
and economics. It refers to a partnership arrangement between two parties: the
capital provider (Rabb al-Mal) and the entrepreneur or manager (Mudarib).
In a Mudarabah contract, the capital provider contributes the capital,
while the entrepreneur provides expertise, labor, and management skills.

The Mudarabah partnership operates on
the principle of profit-sharing, where the profits generated from the business
venture are distributed between the capital provider and the entrepreneur based
on a pre-agreed ratio. This ratio is typically determined before the
partnership begins and can be based on mutual consent or standard practices.

The capital provider, as the investor, bears
the financial risk in the Mudarabah partnership. If the venture incurs
losses, the capital provider will bear the losses, while the entrepreneur will
not be held liable for more than their initial contribution. This feature
aligns with the concept of risk-sharing in Islamic finance, where risks and
rewards are shared between the parties involved.

The entrepreneur or manager, on the other
hand, is responsible for the day-to-day operations, decision-making, and
management of the business venture. They utilize their skills, knowledge, and
expertise to ensure the success and profitability of the venture. The
entrepreneur’s effort and contribution are crucial for the Mudarabah
partnership to flourish.

In addition to the profit-sharing arrangement,
Mudarabah contracts may also include certain conditions or restrictions
agreed upon by both parties. These conditions can outline the scope of the
partnership, the duration of the contract, permissible activities, and other
relevant terms and conditions.

Mudarabah contracts are commonly used in various sectors, including
trade, investment projects, and entrepreneurial ventures. Islamic financial
institutions often offer Mudarabah-based products, such as investment accounts
or funds, where individuals or businesses can invest their capital and share in
the profits generated by the institution’s investments.

It’s important to note that in Mudarabah,
the capital provider assumes the majority of the financial risk, while the
entrepreneur bears the operational risk. This encourages a fair sharing of
risks and rewards, aligning with the principles of fairness, cooperation, and
shared prosperity in Islamic economics.

Mudarabah plays a significant role in promoting
entrepreneurship, encouraging investment, and fostering economic growth while
adhering to the principles of Islamic finance. It provides a mechanism for
capital providers to invest their funds in ventures while relying on the
expertise and efforts of capable entrepreneurs.



Murabahah is a widely used concept in Islamic finance,
particularly in the area of trade and financing. It is a contract-based
transaction that allows for the sale of goods with a transparent profit margin
agreed upon by the buyer and seller.

The Murabahah transaction involves
three parties: the buyer, the seller, and a financial institution. The buyer
expresses their intention to purchase a specific item from the seller, who then
procures the item or acquires it from a third party. The financial institution
acts as a facilitator by providing the necessary funds to the seller for the
purchase of the item.

The seller discloses the cost of the item to
the buyer, including any additional expenses incurred during the procurement
process. The seller also discloses the agreed-upon profit margin, which is
typically expressed as a percentage or a specific amount. This profit margin
serves as the financial institution’s earnings for providing the funds.

The buyer and seller enter into a contract
specifying the cost and the profit margin, along with any other relevant terms
and conditions. The buyer agrees to purchase the item from the seller at the
total cost, including the profit margin, in deferred payment terms. The payment
can be made in installments or as a lump sum at a future date.

It’s important to note that Murabahah
is a fixed-price transaction, meaning the buyer knows the total cost of the
item from the outset. The profit margin is agreed upon upfront and is not
dependent on interest or fluctuating market rates.

From an Islamic finance perspective, Murabahah
is considered a valid mode of financing, as it complies with the principles of
Sharia law. It allows for the facilitation of trade and financing without
resorting to interest-based transactions, which are prohibited in Islamic

Murabahah is commonly used in various sectors, including consumer goods,
vehicles, real estate, and project financing. Islamic banks and financial
institutions offer Murabahah-based products and services to meet the
financing needs of individuals and businesses.

One key benefit of Murabahah is its
transparency and simplicity. The buyer knows the cost and profit margin
upfront, eliminating uncertainty and promoting trust between the parties. It
also provides an avenue for individuals and businesses to acquire assets and
finance their needs in a Sharia-compliant manner.

It’s worth mentioning that while Murabahah
is widely used, it is considered a cost-plus financing arrangement and does not
involve the same level of risk-sharing as other Islamic finance concepts like Musharakah
or Mudarabah. Nonetheless, it continues to play a significant role in
Islamic finance by providing a practical and viable alternative to
interest-based transactions.

In summary, Murabahah
is an Islamic finance concept that facilitates trade and financing through a
transparent sale of goods with an agreed-upon profit margin. It allows
individuals and businesses to acquire assets and finance their needs in a
Sharia-compliant manner while promoting transparency and trust between the
parties involved.



Ijarah, also known as Islamic leasing, is a concept
in Islamic finance that allows for the leasing or rental of assets or services.
It is a contract-based arrangement where the owner of an asset (lessor)
transfers the right to use the asset to another party (lessee) in exchange for
periodic payments.

The fundamental principle of Ijarah is
that ownership of the asset remains with the lessor while the lessee gains the
right to utilize and benefit from the asset for a specific period and purpose.
The lessor retains responsibility for maintaining the asset and bears the risks
associated with ownership.

Ijarah contracts can apply to various types of assets, including real
estate, vehicles, equipment, machinery, and even services. The terms and
conditions of the lease, such as the duration, rental amount, and other
specific terms, are agreed upon by both parties before the contract is

The rental payments in Ijarah are
considered the consideration for the utilization of the asset or service. The
amount and frequency of the payments are determined in advance and agreed upon
by both parties. The lessor may also include additional terms, such as conditions
for early termination of the lease.

One distinguishing feature of Ijarah is
that the lessor retains the ownership and risks associated with the leased
asset. This aligns with the prohibition of Riba (interest) in Islamic
finance, as Ijarah does not involve the charging of interest on the
capital or the appreciation of the asset’s value over time.

Ijarah contracts can be structured in different ways to suit the
specific needs and preferences of the parties involved. For example, in Ijarah
wa Iqtina
, there may be an option for the lessee to purchase the asset at
the end of the lease period. This arrangement allows for gradual ownership
transfer, giving the lessee an opportunity to acquire the asset.

Ijarah is widely used in various sectors, including real estate,
vehicle financing, equipment leasing, and project financing. Islamic banks and
financial institutions often offer Ijarah-based products and services to cater
to individuals and businesses seeking Sharia-compliant financing options.

From an economic perspective, Ijarah
provides a mechanism for individuals and businesses to access and utilize
assets without taking on the full ownership burden. It facilitates the
efficient allocation of resources and promotes economic activity by enabling
businesses to acquire necessary assets and individuals to access housing or
transportation without resorting to interest-based financing.

Overall, Ijarah
is a fundamental concept in Islamic finance that promotes the utilization of
assets through leasing arrangements while adhering to the principles of Islamic
law. It offers an alternative to conventional interest-based financing and
encourages fair and transparent transactions in the realm of asset usage and


Investment in Agriculture

Islamic economics encourages investment in agriculture,
recognizing it as a vital sector that contributes to food security, economic
development, and sustainable livelihoods. Agriculture holds a significant place
in Islamic teachings, which emphasize the importance of nurturing the earth,
utilizing its resources responsibly, and providing for the well-being of

Islamic economics places emphasis on social justice and
equitable development. Investment in agriculture can be directed towards rural
areas, aiming to improve the socio-economic conditions of farmers and rural
communities. This can include infrastructure development, access to markets,
irrigation systems, training programs, and capacity building to enhance
agricultural productivity and alleviate rural poverty.

Islamic economics encourages cooperative farming models
where individuals or communities pool their resources and skills to
collectively invest in agriculture. This fosters collaboration, risk-sharing,
and the equitable distribution of profits. Cooperative farming can enable
small-scale farmers to access resources, technology, and markets that would
otherwise be challenging to attain individually.


Muzara’ah can be seen as a form of cooperative farming.
Muzara’ah is an Islamic concept that involves a partnership between a landowner
(Muzarib) and a farmer (Amil). In this arrangement, the landowner provides the
land, while the farmer contributes labor, expertise, and other necessary
resources for cultivation.

Under the Muzara’ah agreement, the
farmer (Amil) cultivates the land and shares the crop yield with the
landowner (Muzarib) based on a pre-determined ratio or percentage. The
division of the yield is agreed upon before the farming activity commences.

The Muzara’ah partnership can be
considered a form of cooperative farming because it involves the collaboration
and shared participation of both the landowner and the farmer. It allows
individuals with different resources and skills to come together to collectively
engage in agricultural production.

The Muzara’ah arrangement promotes
risk-sharing, as both the landowner and the farmer share in the risks and
uncertainties associated with agricultural activities. They also share in the
potential profits or losses resulting from the crop yield.

Cooperative farming models like Muzara’ah
enable landowners to utilize their land resources effectively by engaging
experienced farmers, while farmers gain access to land for cultivation without
the need for large capital investments.

It’s important to note that the specific
details and terms of Muzara’ah partnerships can vary, as they are based
on mutual agreement between the parties involved. The arrangement can be
adapted to suit the needs and preferences of the landowner and farmer, provided
it adheres to the principles of Islamic economics and Islamic law.

Overall, Muzara’ah
represents a cooperative farming model within the framework of Islamic
economics, where landowners and farmers collaborate to utilize land resources
and share in agricultural production and outcomes.


Musaqat is an agricultural contract in Islamic
finance that involves the leasing of an orchard or garden for the purpose of
cultivation and harvesting of fruits or produce. It is a specific type of partnership
in which one party provides the land (owner) while the other party (cultivator)
contributes labor, expertise, and other necessary resources for the maintenance
and cultivation of the orchard.

Under the Musaqat agreement, the
cultivator undertakes the responsibility of nurturing and taking care of the
trees or plants, including watering, fertilizing, pruning, and protecting them
from pests or diseases. The cultivator is entitled to a portion of the
harvested fruits or produce as agreed upon in the contract, while the landowner
receives a share for providing the land.

Musaqat is an example of a risk-sharing arrangement, as both parties
share in the risks and rewards of agricultural activity. If the harvest is
abundant, both the cultivator and the landowner benefit. Conversely, if there
is a poor harvest or loss, both parties share in the downside.

This contract aligns with the principles of
Islamic finance, as it promotes equitable participation and fair distribution
of resources and rewards. It encourages cooperation and collaboration between
landowners and cultivators, providing an opportunity for individuals with land
resources but limited agricultural expertise to benefit from the productivity
of their land through the skills and efforts of cultivators.

Musaqat also encourages the efficient use of land resources by allowing
landowners to lease their orchards or gardens to experienced cultivators who
can maximize the yield and maintain the quality of the produce. It provides an
avenue for cultivators to access land without the burden of land ownership or
high capital requirements.

The terms and conditions of a Musaqat
contract, including the sharing ratio, responsibilities, duration, and other
relevant terms, are mutually agreed upon by the parties involved. It is
important for the contract to be clear, transparent, and compliant with Islamic

In summary, Musaqat
is an agricultural contract in Islamic finance that facilitates the partnership
between a landowner and a cultivator for the cultivation and sharing of fruits
or produce. It promotes risk-sharing, efficient utilization of land resources,
and equitable participation in agricultural activities, aligning with the
principles of Islamic economics.

Islamic Banking

Wadi’ah, also known as safekeeping or custody, is a concept in Islamic
finance and banking that refers to the act of depositing money or valuable
assets with a trusted custodian for safekeeping. It is a form of arrangement
where the depositor entrusts their funds or assets to the custodian, who is
responsible for their protection and return upon request.

In the context of Islamic banking, Wadi’ah serves as an alternative to conventional interest-based deposit-taking. It provides a means for individuals and businesses to safeguard their assets in a Sharia-compliant manner. The custodian, often a financial institution, acts as a caretaker of the deposited funds or assets and is expected to exercise due diligence and fulfill their fiduciary responsibilities.

Key features and principles of Wadi’ah include:


The primary objective of Wadi’ah is to ensure the
safekeeping of the deposited funds or assets. The custodian is entrusted with
the responsibility of protecting the deposit and returning it intact to the
depositor when requested.

No Guaranteed Return:

Unlike conventional interest-bearing deposits, Wadi’ah
does not involve the payment or receipt of any predetermined or guaranteed
return. The custodian does not provide any profit or interest on the deposit,
as it is merely acting as a custodian and not using the funds for investment

Fiduciary Duty:

The custodian is considered a trustee or agent of the depositor
and is bound by a fiduciary duty to exercise reasonable care and diligence in
safeguarding the deposited funds or assets. The custodian should not use the
deposit for its own benefit or engage in any unauthorized transactions.


The ownership of the deposited funds or assets remains with the
depositor throughout the Wadi’ah arrangement. The custodian has a contractual
obligation to return the deposit upon request, without commingling it with its
own funds or using it for its own purposes.


The custodian bears the liability for any loss or damage to the deposited funds or assets resulting from negligence or breach of its obligations. However, the custodian may be exempted from liability in cases of force majeure or circumstances beyond its control.

Wadi’ah is commonly used in Islamic banks for various types of deposit accounts, such as current accounts, savings accounts, or demand deposit accounts. While the depositor does not receive any guaranteed return on their deposit, they benefit from the assurance of the safety and security of their funds.

It’s important to note that Wadi’ah should be distinguished from investment-based accounts or products that offer profit-sharing or investment returns, as those involve different contractual arrangements and risk-sharing mechanisms.

Overall, Wadi’ah serves as a mechanism for safekeeping funds or assets in accordance with
Islamic principles. It provides individuals and businesses with a Sharia-compliant alternative for depositing their assets while ensuring their protection and accessibility.

However, the concept of Islamic banking goes
beyond Wadi’ah. Islamic banking institutions offer a range of financial
products and services that comply with Islamic principles, including
profit-sharing contracts such as Mudarabah (partnership) and Musharakah
(joint venture), as well as leasing contracts such as Ijarah. These contracts
facilitate investment, financing, and economic activities without involving
interest (Riba) or prohibited elements.

Islamic banking aims to provide an alternative
financial system that aligns with the principles of justice, risk-sharing, and
ethical conduct. It seeks to foster economic growth while upholding the values
and principles of Islamic law.




According to mainstream scholarship in Islamic finance, it is
generally permissible to purchase shares of companies in the stock exchange
under certain conditions and within specific guidelines. However, it is
important to note that there may be differences of opinion among scholars
regarding specific practices and circumstances, and individual rulings may

The permissibility of investing in stocks is based on the following considerations:

Business Activities:

The underlying business activities of the company in which the
shares are being purchased should be permissible according to Islamic
principles. This means that the company should not be involved in activities
that are explicitly prohibited in Islam, such as gambling, alcohol, pork, or
interest-based financial transactions.

Debt Ratio:

The company’s debt ratio should be within acceptable limits.
Excessive levels of debt may raise concerns of excessive financial risk or
involvement in interest-based borrowing, which would be contrary to Islamic

Profit and Loss Sharing:

The investment in shares should entitle the investor to a
proportionate share of profits and losses generated by the company. This aligns
with the principle of equity and risk-sharing in Islamic finance.

Transparency and Disclosure:

The company should provide sufficient and transparent
information about its financial position, activities, and corporate governance
practices. Investors should have access to accurate and timely information to
make informed investment decisions.

Unlawful Income:

If the company derives a significant portion of its income from prohibited activities,
such as interest or non-compliant sources, one should avoid investing in that company.

It is important for individuals to consult with qualified scholars or experts in Islamic finance to obtain specific guidance and rulings based on their individual circumstances and the practices of the companies in question. Different scholars may have varying interpretations and opinions on specific aspects of investing in stocks.

Furthermore, it is worth noting that the permissibility of investing in stocks does not imply that all stocks or investment opportunities in the stock market are automatically permissible. Each investment opportunity should be evaluated on its own merits and investors should exercise due diligence to ensure compliance with Islamic principles.

Overall, while investing in stocks is generally considered permissible within the framework of Islamic finance, it is advised to seek guidance from qualified scholars or experts in the field to ensure compliance with Islamic principles and to navigate any specific concerns or issues that may arise.


Ethical Guidelines

Islamic economics places a significant emphasis on ethical
behavior in economic activities. It seeks to establish a moral framework that
guides individuals and societies in their economic interactions. The principles
of honesty, fairness, and accountability are central to the ethical foundation
of Islamic economics.


Islamic economics stresses the importance of honesty and
truthfulness in all economic transactions. Individuals are expected to provide
accurate information and disclose any relevant details to ensure transparency
and fairness. Engaging in dishonest practices, such as misrepresentation, false
advertising, or deceitful behavior, is considered unethical and goes against
the principles of Islamic economics.

Fairness and Justice:

Islamic economics promotes fairness and justice in economic
dealings. It advocates for the equitable distribution of resources and
opportunities, ensuring that individuals are treated fairly in their economic
transactions. Unfair practices, such as price manipulation, price gouging, or
monopolistic behavior that exploits others, are discouraged. Islamic economics
encourages market competition within a framework of fairness and justice, where
all participants have equal opportunities.


Islamic economics emphasizes the concept of accountability in
economic activities. Individuals and organizations are expected to be
accountable for their actions and decisions, particularly in matters related to
financial transactions. This includes fulfilling contractual obligations,
honoring agreements, and taking responsibility for any harm caused due to
negligence or wrongdoing. Accountability helps maintain trust and integrity in
economic relationships.

Prohibition of Exploitation:

Islamic economics strongly discourages any form of exploitation
in economic transactions. Exploitative practices, such as usury (Riba) and
excessive profiteering, are strictly prohibited. The focus is on promoting
mutually beneficial transactions where both parties derive fair value from
their exchange.

Social Responsibility:

Islamic economics recognizes the social dimension of economic activities. It emphasizes
the importance of considering the welfare and well-being of society as a whole. This includes promoting social justice, addressing income disparities, and actively participating in initiatives that alleviate poverty and improve the quality of life for all members of society.

By promoting ethical behavior in economic activities, Islamic economics aims to create an environment of trust, fairness, and social harmony. It recognizes that economic transactions should not be detached from ethical considerations but rather be guided by principles that promote the overall well-being and moral development of individuals and society as a whole.


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