June 22, 2024

Islamic System of Governance

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Islamic System of Governance

Introduction

The Quran provides guidance for Muslims in all aspects of life, including governance and the establishment of a just and equitable society. While there is no single blueprint for an Islamic state, there are several principles in the Quran that can guide the development of such a state. Here are some of them:

The sovereignty of Allah:

The Quran establishes the sovereignty of Allah, meaning that all authority ultimately belongs to God. This means that any government or ruler must operate within the limits set by Allah and that the people have a duty to obey God’s laws.

Justice:

Justice is a fundamental principle in Islam, and the Quran commands Muslims to be just in all their dealings. This includes ensuring that the rights of all individuals are protected and that the law is applied equally to all, regardless of their status or wealth.

Consultation:

The Quran encourages Muslims to consult with one another in all matters, including governance. This means that a leader should seek the opinions of those who are affected by their decisions and that decisions should be made based on consensus rather than unilateral
action.

Freedom:

The Quran upholds the principle of individual freedom, including freedom of thought, conscience, and expression. This means that individuals should be allowed to practice their religion and express their opinions without fear of persecution or discrimination.

Accountability:

The Quran emphasizes the importance of accountability, both for leaders and for individuals. Leaders are held responsible for their actions and decisions, and individuals are responsible for their behavior and adherence to God’s laws.


Compassion:

The Quran encourages Muslims to be compassionate and to show kindness and mercy to all people, regardless of their religion or background. This means that a just society should be one that is inclusive and that protects the rights of all its citizens.

It’s important to note that these principles are not exhaustive and that there are
different interpretations of how they should be applied in practice. The
development of an Islamic state is a complex process that requires careful
consideration of these principles, as well as the social, economic, and
political context of the society in question.

Sovereignty of Allah

The concept of the sovereignty of Allah is central to Islamic theology and governance. In Islamic thought, Allah is believed to be the ultimate source of all power and authority. This means that any authority or government derives its legitimacy from Allah and must operate within the limits set by Allah’s laws.

The sovereignty of Allah implies that no human being, institution, or law can claim
to be above or equal to God’s authority. This means that any government or ruler must recognize the supremacy of God’s law and ensure that their actions
and decisions are consistent with it.

In practice, this means that an Islamic state is one that is based on the principles of justice, mercy, and compassion, as revealed in the Quran and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. This includes ensuring that the rights of all individuals are protected, that the law is applied equally to all, and that the state serves the interests of the people rather than the interests of a ruling elite.

The concept of the sovereignty of Allah also has implications for the relationship
between the state and the people. In Islamic thought, the people are not subservient to the state, but rather the state is responsible for serving the needs of the people and protecting their rights. This means that the state is accountable to the people and that the people have a right to participate in the governance of the state.

Overall, the concept of the sovereignty of Allah is an essential principle in Islamic
governance, emphasizing the importance of justice, accountability, and the rule
of law, all of which are necessary for the establishment of a just and equitable society.

The concept of the sovereignty of Allah is deeply rooted in the Quran, and there are many verses that affirm this
principle. Here are a few examples:

1.    
He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best
names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the
Exalted in Might, the Wise.
” (Quran 59:24)

This verse affirms the power and authority of Allah as the Creator of all things.

2.    
And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is over
all things competent.
” (Quran 3:189)

This verse emphasizes the all-encompassing authority of Allah over everything in the
universe.


And say, “Praise to Allah, who has not taken a son and has had no partner in
[His] dominion and has no [need of a] protector out of weakness; and glorify
Him with [great] glorification.
” (Quran 17:111)

This verse affirms the absolute sovereignty of Allah and rejects any notion that He
has a partner or equal in His authority.

“”He created the heavens and earth in truth. He wraps the night over the day and
wraps the day over the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each
running [its course] for a specified term. Unquestionably, He is the Exalted in
Might, the Perpetual Forgiver.
” (Quran 39:5)

This verse emphasizes the power of Allah as the Creator of the universe and the one
who has ordained the laws that govern it.

Overall, the Quran affirms the sovereignty of Allah as the ultimate source of all power
and authority and emphasizes the importance of recognizing His authority in
all aspects of life, including governance.

Justice

Justice is a central concept in Islam, and it is considered to be one of the foundational principles of Islamic ethics and governance. The Quran repeatedly emphasizes the importance of justice and fairness, and it instructs Muslims to strive for justice in all their dealings. Here are some ways that justice is understood and emphasized in Islam:

Equality before the law:

In Islam, all individuals are considered equal before the law, regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, or social status. This means that everyone is entitled to the same rights and protections under the law and that no one is above the law. The Quran states:
O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both. So follow not [personal] inclination, lest you not be just. And if you distort [your testimony] or refuse [to give it], then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.” (Quran 4:135)

Restitution for harm:

In Islamic law, restitution for harm caused to others is an important aspect of justice. This means that if someone has been wronged or harmed, the person who caused the harm is obligated to make amends and compensate the victim. The Quran states: “And the retribution for an evil act is an evil one like it, but whoever pardons and makes
reconciliation – his reward is [due] from Allah. Indeed, He does not like
wrongdoers.” (Quran 42:40)

Fairness in transactions:

In Islamic finance and business, fairness and transparency are essential principles. All parties to a transaction are expected to be honest and fair in their dealings and to avoid
taking advantage of others. The Quran states: “And do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers in order that [they might aid] you [to] consume a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know [it is unlawful].” (Quran 2:188)

Compassion and mercy:

Although justice is important in Islam, it is tempered by compassion and mercy. Muslims are instructed to show kindness and forgiveness to others, even in the face of wrongdoing. The Quran states: “And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace.” (Quran 25:63)

Overall, the principle of justice is fundamental to Islamic ethics and governance,
emphasizing the importance of fairness, equality, and compassion in all aspects
of life.

Consultation

In Islam, consultation (shura) is considered to be a meritorious act with many benefits. Here are some of the merits of consultation in Islam:

It is a Prophetic practice:

Consultation is a practice that was encouraged by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). He is reported to have said, “The one who consults is not mistaken.” This indicates that consultation is a recommended practice that can lead to better decision-making.

It promotes unity:

Consultation helps to promote unity and harmony among members of a community or organization. By seeking the opinions of others and working together to make decisions, people can feel more invested in the outcome and more willing to support the decision.

It promotes transparency:

When decisions are made through consultation, it can help to promote transparency and accountability. All stakeholders have the opportunity to provide input and be heard, which can help to reduce the likelihood of hidden agendas or biases.

It helps to avoid mistakes:

By seeking the input and advice of others, decision-makers can avoid mistakes and oversights that might otherwise occur. Different perspectives can help to identify potential problems or opportunities that might have been missed otherwise.

It is a form of worship:

Consultation is considered to be a form of worship in Islam because it involves seeking the guidance and help of Allah and recognizing that He is the ultimate source of knowledge and wisdom. By engaging in consultation, Muslims can fulfill their religious duty to seek Allah’s guidance in all aspects of life.

Overall, consultation is considered to be a virtuous practice in Islam that can lead to
better decision-making, promote unity and transparency, and help individuals
fulfill their religious duty to seek Allah’s guidance.

Freedom

In an Islamic state, freedom is seen as an essential human right that is protected and guaranteed by Islamic principles. However, Islamic principles also place certain limitations on freedom in order to maintain social order and ensure the well-being of
individuals and the community as a whole,

One of the key Islamic principles related to freedom is the concept of individual responsibility. In Islam, individuals are seen as responsible for their own actions and are accountable for any harm that they may cause to themselves or others. This means that individuals have the freedom to make their own choices, but they must also be aware of the consequences of those choices.

Another important Islamic principle related to freedom is the concept of justice. In an Islamic state, justice is seen as a fundamental principle that must be upheld in all areas of society, including in the protection of individual freedoms. This means that the state has a responsibility to ensure that individuals are not subjected to unjust
 restrictions on their freedom and that their basic human rights are protected.

At the same time, Islam also places limitations on individual freedom in certain areas, such as in matters related to public safety and the preservation of social order. For example, in an Islamic state, there may be restrictions on certain forms of speech or behavior that are deemed to be harmful to individuals or to the community as a whole.

Overall, the Islamic principles related to freedom in an Islamic state are based on a balance between individual rights and responsibilities, and the need to maintain social
order and protect the well-being of individuals and the community as a whole.

Accountability

In Islam, the accountability of leaders is an important principle that is emphasized in both the Quran and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Islamic teachings stress the importance of leaders being just and fair, and being accountable to the people they govern.

One of the main mechanisms for ensuring the accountability of leaders in Islam is the
principle of Shura or consultation. In an Islamic state, leaders are expected to consult with their constituents, including members of the Shura council, in making decisions that affect the welfare of the people. This ensures that the voices and opinions of the people are taken into account and that leaders are held accountable for their decisions.

Additionally, Islamic teachings stress the importance of justice and fairness in all aspects
of leadership, including in matters related to governance, law enforcement, and
the distribution of resources. Leaders are expected to uphold the principles of
justice and to be accountable for any actions that violate these principles.

In cases where leaders fail to uphold these principles, Islamic teachings provide mechanisms for holding them accountable, including the right of the people
to remove leaders who are not fulfilling their duties or are acting unjustly.
This is based on the principle of amr bil-ma’ruf wa nahy anil-munkar, which
encourages people to enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong.

Overall, the accountability of leaders is seen as an essential principle in Islam, and
leaders are expected to be just, fair, and accountable to the people they
govern. This ensures that the welfare and rights of the people are protected and that leaders are held to a high standard of ethical conduct and governance.

Compassion

Compassion, or rahmah in Arabic, is a central principle in the Islamic Constitution. The Quran describes Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a “mercy to all the
worlds” (Quran 21:107), and emphasizes the importance of compassion,
mercy, and kindness in all aspects of life.

In an Islamic state, compassion is seen as an essential value that should guide all aspects of governance and society. This includes the treatment of citizens, the distribution of resources, and the administration of justice.

The Islamic Constitution emphasizes the importance of social justice and the equitable distribution of resources, as well as the protection of the rights of all citizens regardless of their background or beliefs. This is based on the principle of equality, which is a
fundamental aspect of Islamic teachings.

Additionally, compassion is emphasized in the principles of Islamic governance, which stress the importance of leaders being just, merciful, and compassionate. Leaders are expected to be mindful of the welfare and well-being of all citizens and to be accountable for their actions and decisions.

In short, compassion plays a central role in the Islamic Constitution and is seen as an essential value that should guide all aspects of governance and society. It is through
compassion and mercy that a just and equitable society can be built, where the
welfare and well-being of all citizens are protected and upheld.

Organs of State

In Islam, there are no fixed or rigid organs of the state. However, there are some key institutions and authorities that play an important role in Islamic governance. These include:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader:

The caliphate is a leadership position in Islam that represents the political and spiritual head of the Muslim community. The caliph is responsible for upholding Islamic law and providing guidance and direction to the community.

Majlis al-Shura:

The consultative council, or Majlis al-Shura, is a body that provides guidance and advice to the caliph or other leaders in matters of governance. Shura emphasizes the importance of consultation, participation, and consensus-building in decision-making.

Majlis al-Shura comprises of two houses or councils:

1.    The Legislative Council

2.    The Executive Council

The Legislative Council/ Dar al-Ulama:

In Islamic governance, the
legislative council is responsible for making laws and regulations that are
consistent with Islamic principles and values. This may be done through a
consultative process that involves input and feedback from the community.

The Executive Council / Dar al-Umara:

The executive council is responsible
for implementing and enforcing laws and regulations, as well as managing public
affairs and resources. Islamic principles emphasize the importance of
accountability and transparency in the executive branch.

The judiciary:

The judiciary is responsible for
interpreting and applying Islamic law, as well as resolving disputes and
enforcing legal judgments. Islamic law emphasizes the importance of fairness
and impartiality in the judicial process.

Overall,
the organs of the state in Islam are characterized by a balance of power and a
commitment to justice, fairness, and accountability. While the specific
structures and institutions may vary depending on the context and time period,
Islamic governance emphasizes the importance of upholding the principles and
values of Islam in all aspects of public life.

The Caliph or Supreme Leader

In an Islamic state, the Caliph or Supreme Leader is the ultimate authority and is responsible for upholding the principles of Islamic governance and ensuring the welfare and well-being of all citizens. The key objectives of the Caliph or Supreme Leader
include: 

Upholding the principles of Islamic governance:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader is responsible for ensuring that all laws and policies are in accordance with Islamic teachings and principles. This includes protecting the rights of all citizens, ensuring social justice and the equitable distribution of resources,
and promoting the general welfare of society.

Maintaining the unity of the Ummah:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader is responsible for promoting the unity of the Muslim community (Ummah) and preventing division and discord. This includes ensuring that all members of society are treated fairly and justly, regardless of their background or
beliefs.

Protecting the security and sovereignty of the state:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader is responsible for protecting the security and sovereignty of the state, and for ensuring that the state is not threatened by external or internal forces.

Guiding the Ummah:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader is responsible for providing guidance and direction to the Muslim community, and for ensuring that all members of society are guided by Islamic teachings
and principles.

Serving as a role model:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader is expected to serve a role model for all citizens, and to embody the values of Islamic teachings in their
personal and public life.

Overall, the key objectives of the Caliph or Supreme Leader in
an Islamic state is to uphold the principles of Islamic governance, promote
the welfare and well-being of all citizens, and guide the Muslim community
towards a just and equitable society.

Judiciary

In an Islamic system of governance, the judiciary plays a crucial role in upholding justice and ensuring that laws and policies are in accordance with Islamic teachings and principles. The role of the judiciary in Islamic governance is multifaceted and includes the following:

Interpretation and application of Islamic law:

The judiciary is responsible for
interpreting and applying Islamic law (Sharia) in all legal matters. This
includes the resolution of disputes, the enforcement of contracts, and the
adjudication of criminal cases.

Upholding justice:

The judiciary is responsible for upholding justice and ensuring that all citizens are treated fairly and justly, regardless of their background or beliefs. This includes the protection of individual rights and freedoms, the prevention of corruption and abuse of
power, and the punishment of those who violate the law.

Safeguarding the constitution:

The judiciary is responsible for safeguarding the Islamic constitution and ensuring that all laws and policies are in accordance with Islamic teachings and principles.

Providing checks and balances:

The judiciary provides a crucial check on the power of the executive and legislative branches of government, ensuring that their actions are in line with Islamic teachings and principles.

Promoting accountability:

The judiciary plays an important role in promoting accountability by holding government officials and other individuals responsible for their actions.

Overall, the role of the judiciary in Islamic governance is to ensure that justice is
served and that all citizens are treated fairly and justly, in accordance with Islamic teachings and principles.

Police

The role of the police in an Islamic State is to maintain law and order, protect the lives and property of the citizens, and ensure that the laws of the state are enforced in a fair and just manner. The police force is responsible for upholding the rule of law and
providing security to the citizens of the state.

In an Islamic State, the police force operates under the guidance of the government and is accountable to the Caliph or Supreme Leader. The police are expected to carry out their duties with honesty, integrity, and professionalism, and to treat all citizens with respect and dignity.

The police force in an Islamic State is responsible for a range of tasks, including:

1.     Preventing crime: The police are responsible for preventing crime and maintaining law and order in the state. They do this through regular patrols, monitoring of high-risk areas, and gathering intelligence on potential threats.

2.     Investigating crimes: When a crime is committed, the police are
responsible for conducting a thorough investigation and gathering evidence that
can be used in court.

3.     Protecting citizens: The police are responsible for protecting
the lives and property of the citizens, and for responding to emergencies and
crises in a timely and effective manner.

4.     Enforcing the law: The police are responsible for enforcing the
laws of the state, and for arresting and prosecuting those who violate the law.
In other words, police help the judiciary in enforcing the law.

In carrying out their duties, the police in an Islamic State is
expected to operate in accordance with Islamic teachings and values, and to
uphold the principles of justice and compassion in all their actions.

 

Majlis al-Shura

The key objectives of Shura in Islam are as follows:

Promoting consultation and participation:

The primary objective of Shura
is to promote consultation and participation in decision-making. This helps to
ensure that decisions are made based on the collective wisdom and expertise of
the community, rather than the opinions of a few individuals.

Fostering unity and solidarity:

Shura helps to foster unity and solidarity within the community,
by providing a forum for open and constructive dialogue and encouraging mutual
respect and understanding among community members.

Ensuring justice and fairness:

Shura helps to ensure justice and fairness in decision-making, by
providing a process for weighing different viewpoints and considering the
interests of all stakeholders.

Promoting accountability and transparency:

Shura promotes accountability and transparency in
decision-making, by ensuring that decisions are made openly and transparently
and that leaders are held accountable for their actions.

Facilitating good governance:

Shura helps to facilitate good
governance, by providing a mechanism for leaders to seek input and guidance
from the community and make decisions that are in the best interest of the
community as a whole.

Overall,
the key objectives of shura in Islam are to promote participation, unity,
justice, accountability, and good governance. By fostering a consultative and
inclusive decision-making process, shura helps to promote the well-being of the
community and ensure that decisions are made in accordance with Islamic values
and principles.

 

The Executive Council/
Dar al-Umara

 

In an Islamic State, the
role of the executive body is to manage the day-to-day affairs of the
government and to implement policies and programs in accordance with Islamic
principles and values. The executive body is responsible for carrying out the
laws and policies that are created by the legislative body, and for overseeing
the various branches and agencies of the government.

The executive body is headed by the Caliph or Supreme Leader,
who is responsible for overseeing the work of the government and ensuring that
it operates in accordance with Islamic teachings and principles. The Caliph is
assisted by a council of ministers, who are responsible for managing the
various departments and agencies of the government.

The key functions of the executive body in an Islamic State
include:

Implementing policies and
programs:

The executive body is
responsible for implementing the policies and programs that are developed by
the legislative body.

Managing the government:

The executive body is
responsible for managing the various branches and agencies of the government,
and for ensuring that they operate effectively and efficiently.

Representing the state:

The executive body is
responsible for representing the Islamic State in international forums and
negotiations, and for maintaining relations with other nations and
international organizations.

Providing leadership:

The Caliph or Supreme Leader provides leadership and guidance to
the government and to the citizens of the Islamic State, and is responsible for
ensuring that the government operates in accordance with Islamic principles and
values.

Overall, the role of the executive body in an Islamic State is
to ensure that the government operates in accordance with Islamic teachings and
principles, and to manage the day-to-day affairs of the government in a manner
that promotes justice, equality, and the common good.

 

 

The Legislative
Council/ Dar al-Ulama

In an Islamic system
of governance, the legislative council is responsible for making laws that are
in accordance with Islamic principles and values. The role of the legislative
body is to study the needs of society, identify areas that require legislation,
and draft laws that are consistent with the Islamic principles of justice,
equality, and compassion.

The legislative body in an Islamic system of
governance is also responsible for overseeing the implementation of laws and
ensuring that they are being enforced in a just and fair manner. The
legislative body has the power to amend, repeal, or introduce new laws as
needed, and it is also responsible for holding government officials accountable
for their actions.

Overall, the role of
the legislative body in an Islamic system of governance is to ensure that the
laws of the land are consistent with Islamic principles and that they serve the
needs and interests of the community as a whole.

Why Legislative Body?

It is true that many
of the principles and guidelines for governance and social order in an Islamic
system are found in the Quran and Sunnah. However, this does not mean that
there is no need for a legislative body in an Islamic system of governance.

The Quran and Sunnah provide broad guidelines
and principles, but they do not provide specific details on all matters of
governance and social order. For example, the Quran and Sunnah may provide
guidance on the importance of justice, but they may not provide specific
details on how to address a particular issue of justice in a modern context. In
such cases, a legislative body can play an important role in developing laws
that are consistent with Islamic principles and that address specific needs and
challenges of society.

Moreover, the legislative body can also play
an important role in interpreting and applying the Quran and Sunnah to
modern-day issues. The Quran and Sunnah are complex texts that require careful
study and interpretation, and the legislative body can serve as a forum for scholars
and experts to come together to discuss and debate various interpretations and
applications of Islamic principles.

In summary, while the
Quran and Sunnah provide important guidance and principles for governance and
social order in an Islamic system, a legislative body is still necessary to
develop specific laws and interpret and apply Islamic principles to
modern-day issues.

 

Majlis al-Wuzara/ Cabinet

In an Islamic state,
the cabinet, or the Majlis al-Wuzara, is responsible for implementing
and executing the policies and decisions of the supreme leader or caliph. The
cabinet is typically composed of experts and professionals who are appointed by
the supreme leader or caliph based on their knowledge and experience in various
fields, such as finance, defense, education, health, and social welfare. They
might be selected from Dar al-Ulama and Dar al-Umara equally. In
case of certain requirements, they might be selected from civil society.

The role of the cabinet in an Islamic state is
to advise the supreme leader or caliph on matters related to their specific
areas of expertise and to ensure that the policies and decisions of the
supreme leader or caliph are effectively implemented. The cabinet also plays an
important role in managing the day-to-day affairs of the state and in
coordinating the work of different government departments and agencies.

In addition to their
administrative and executive functions, members of the cabinet in an Islamic
state are also expected to uphold the principles of justice, compassion, and
accountability that are central to Islamic governance. They are expected to serve
the people with honesty and integrity and to work toward the betterment of
society as a whole.

 

Difference between Shura
and Parliament

Shura and parliament share some similarities, such as the
emphasis on participation and representation, but there are also some key
differences between the two concepts.

Here
are a few ways in which Shura differs from parliament:

Source of authority:

In a democracy, the ultimate source
of authority is the people, who elect representatives to make decisions on
their behalf. In shura, the ultimate source of authority is Allah, who is
considered to be the ultimate guide and source of knowledge and wisdom.

Decision-making process:

In a democracy, decisions are made
through a majority vote, with the winner being the side with the most votes. In
shura, decisions are made through a consultative process, with participants
seeking to reach a consensus or make the best decision based on the available
information and guidance from Allah.

Role of leaders:

In a democracy, elected leaders have
significant power and authority to make decisions and set policy. In shura,
leaders are seen as servants of the community, responsible for facilitating the
consultative process and ensuring that decisions are made in the best interest
of the community.

Relationship between the individual and the community:

In a democracy, the individual is
seen as the ultimate source of authority, with individual rights and freedoms
being highly valued. In shura, the community is seen as the primary unit of
society, with the individual being expected to prioritize the needs of the
community over their own interests.

Overall,
while both shura and democracy emphasize participation and representation, the
underlying values and principles that guide decision-making differ
significantly. In shura, decisions are made through a consultative process that
seeks to align with the will of Allah and promote the well-being of the
community, while in democracy decisions are made through a majority vote based
on the will of the people.

Merits for Leaders
in Islamic State

In Islam, leaders who wish to qualify for membership in shura
should possess certain qualities and characteristics. These include:

Knowledge and expertise:

Leaders should have a deep
understanding of the issues being discussed and the expertise needed to make
informed decisions. They should have a good grasp of the religious, social,
economic, and political factors that impact the community.

Wisdom and sound judgment:

Leaders should possess sound
judgment and wisdom, and be able to make decisions that are in the best
interest of the community as a whole, taking into account both short-term and
long-term consequences.

Integrity and honesty:

Leaders should be known for their
honesty, integrity, and moral character. They should be trustworthy and
transparent in their actions and decisions.

Humility and openness to feedback:

Leaders should be humble and open to
feedback, recognizing that they do not have all the answers and that input from
others can help to improve decision-making. They should be willing to listen to
different perspectives and consider alternative viewpoints.

Service-oriented:

Leaders should be service-oriented,
putting the needs of the community ahead of their own interests. They should be
committed to promoting the well-being of the community and working to address
the needs and concerns of its members.

Overall,
leaders who wish to qualify for membership in shura should possess a
combination of knowledge, wisdom, integrity, humility, and a commitment to
serving the community. They should be able to facilitate a consultative process
that allows for the exchange of ideas and perspectives and helps to ensure
that decisions are made in the best interest of the community.

Age-limit for Membership of Shura

There is no specific age limit for membership in shura in
Islam. The Quran and the Sunnah (teachings of Prophet Muhammad) do not provide
any age restrictions for those who wish to participate in the consultative
process.

However,
it is generally recommended that members of shura should be mature and
experienced enough to contribute meaningfully to the decision-making process.
This typically means that members should be adults who have reached the age of
majority and have sufficient knowledge and expertise to make informed
decisions.

In
some Muslim societies, there may be cultural or traditional practices that
limit participation in shura to certain age groups or genders. However,
these practices are not based on Islamic teachings and should not be viewed as
mandatory or universal.

Overall,
while there is no specific age limit for membership in shura in Islam,
it is generally recommended that members should be mature, experienced, and
have the necessary knowledge and expertise to make informed decisions.

 

 

Selection or
Election?

The
use of a ballot as a means of electing members of Dar al-Umara is a
valid and accepted method from an Islamic point of view. Ballot-based elections
provide a transparent and inclusive way for members of the community to
participate in the selection process and ensure that the members of the Dar
al-Umara
are chosen based on the will of the people.

In
addition to using a ballot-based election, there may be other methods of
selecting members of the Dar al-Umara that are appropriate in certain
contexts. For example, in some cases, members of the Shura may be selected
based on their expertise in a particular field, or their representation of a
particular constituency or interest group.

Regardless
of the specific method used to select members of the Shura, it is important
that the process is fair, transparent, and inclusive, and that the members of
the Shura have the necessary knowledge, expertise, and qualifications to
fulfill their role effectively. Ultimately, the goal of the Shura is to provide
a platform for the community to participate in the decision-making process and
to ensure that the needs and interests of all members of the community are
taken into account.

 

Islam does not prescribe a specific method for electing or
selecting members of the Shura. However, there are certain principles
and guidelines that should be followed in order to ensure that the process is
fair, transparent, and inclusive.

Firstly,
the members of the Shura should be chosen based on their knowledge,
expertise, and qualifications, as well as their commitment to upholding the
principles and values of Islam. They should be individuals who are respected
and trusted by the community, and who are able to represent the interests and
needs of their constituents effectively.

Secondly,
the process of selecting members of the Shura should be open and
transparent, with opportunities for all members of the community to participate
and provide input. This may involve holding public meetings or consultations,
conducting surveys or polls, or using other methods to gather feedback and
opinions from the community.

Thirdly,
the selection process should be free from undue influence or coercion and
should be conducted in an atmosphere of respect, cooperation, and mutual
understanding. Islamic principles emphasize the importance of
consensus-building and cooperation in decision-making, and this should be
reflected in the process of selecting members of the Shura.

Finally,
the selection of members of the Shura should be guided by the principles
of justice and fairness, with equal opportunities for all members of the community
to participate and be heard. This may involve taking steps to address any
existing disparities or inequalities, and ensuring that marginalized or
underrepresented groups are given a voice in the selection process.

Overall,
while Islam does not prescribe a specific method for selecting members of the Shura,
it does provide guidelines and principles that should be followed in order to
ensure that the process is fair, inclusive, and reflective of the needs and
interests of the community.

Selection of Law-Makers

In an Islamic system, it is important that members of the
legislative council or Dar al-Ulama have a strong understanding of
Islamic jurisprudence, as this knowledge will be essential in the process of creating
laws and policies that are consistent with Islamic principles.

One
way to ensure that members of the legislative body have the necessary expertise
is to require that they possess a certain level of education and training in
Islamic jurisprudence. This could involve requiring that they have completed a
certain level of Islamic education, such as a degree in Islamic studies, or
that they have received training from a recognized Islamic institution.

Additionally,
it may be beneficial to have experts in Islamic jurisprudence available to
advise members of the legislative body as they work to create laws and
policies. These experts could provide guidance on how Islamic principles apply
to specific issues and could help to ensure that the laws and policies being
developed are consistent with Islamic principles.

Ultimately,
the goal is to create a legislative body that is well-informed about Islamic
jurisprudence and can use this knowledge to create laws and policies that
promote justice and well-being for all members of society. This requires a
combination of education, training, and expert guidance, as well as a
commitment to upholding the principles of justice, fairness, and consultation
in the legislative process.

 

Armed Forces

The role of the armed forces in an Islamic state is
primarily to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state,
and to maintain peace and security within the country.

In
Islamic teachings, the use of force is only justified in self-defense or in
defense of the weak and oppressed. Therefore, the primary responsibility of the
armed forces in an Islamic state is to defend the country and its citizens from
external threats and aggression and to maintain law and order within the
country.

However,
the use of force is subject to strict conditions and limitations in Islam.
Islamic teachings emphasize the importance of proportionality, restraint, and
avoidance of harm to innocent civilians in the conduct of military operations.
The use of force must be guided by ethical and moral principles, and should
always be subject to oversight and accountability.

Furthermore,
in an Islamic state, the armed forces are expected to operate within the
framework of the law and in accordance with the principles of justice and
fairness. They must respect the rights and dignity of all citizens, and must
not use their power and authority to oppress or exploit the weak and
vulnerable.

Overall,
the role of the armed forces in an Islamic state is to protect and defend the
country and its citizens, while upholding the principles of justice, fairness,
and ethical conduct.

In an Islamic state, the role of the armed forces in the
government setup may vary depending on the specific context and circumstances.
However, the general principle is that the armed forces should not be involved
in the direct administration of the state, but rather should serve as a
separate and independent institution responsible for defending the country and
maintaining peace and security.

In
some Islamic countries, the armed forces may play a role in supporting the
government and ensuring stability, particularly during times of crisis or
political upheaval. However, this role is typically limited to providing
security and maintaining order, rather than making political decisions or
governing the country directly.

In
general, the armed forces in an Islamic state are expected to operate within
the framework of the law and to uphold the principles of justice and fairness.
They are subject to oversight and accountability and must respect the rights
and dignity of all citizens.

Overall,
while the armed forces may play an important role in ensuring the stability and
security of an Islamic state, their role should be limited to protecting the
country and its citizens, and should not infringe upon the rights and freedoms
of the people or interfere with the democratic process.

  

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