May 18, 2024
big bang theory
The Big Bang Theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development and evolution of the universe.


The Big Bang Theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development and evolution of the universe. According to this theory, the universe originated from an extremely hot and dense state approximately 13.8 billion years ago in an event known as the Big Bang. From this initial singularity, the universe rapidly expanded and cooled, giving rise to the formation of fundamental particles, atoms, and eventually galaxies, stars, and cosmic structures over billions of years.

A Dynamic Universe

A dynamic universe refers to a cosmos that is constantly changing and evolving, rather than being static or unchanging. In a dynamic universe, various processes, interactions, and phenomena occur on different scales, leading to ongoing transformations and evolution at both cosmic and microscopic levels.

Origin of the Universe

The question of whether the universe had a beginning is indeed one of the most profound inquiries in cosmology, and its answer lies at the heart of the Big Bang Theory. The foundations of this theory were laid by pioneering scientists such as Georges Lemaître, George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Hans Bethe, whose contributions reshaped our understanding of the cosmos. Georges Lemaître, a Belgian physicist and Catholic priest, was among the first to propose the concept of an expanding universe and formulated what would later be known as the Big Bang Theory.

Building upon Lemaître’s ideas, George Gamow, together with his collaborators Ralph Alpher and Hans Bethe, developed a comprehensive theoretical framework for the early universe’s evolution. Their seminal work predicted the existence of cosmic microwave background radiation—a relic of the hot, dense early universe—which was later discovered by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background provided compelling evidence for the Big Bang Theory and solidified its status as the prevailing cosmological model.

Thus, the contributions of these visionary scientists, guided by rigorous observational evidence and innovative theoretical models, have shaped our understanding of the universe’s origins and evolution, affirming the idea of a cosmic beginning in the Big Bang.

Here’s a summary of the evidence and reasoning supporting the idea of a beginning to the universe:

Cosmic Expansion:

The foundational observations of galaxies’ redshifts, pioneered by Edwin Hubble in the 1920s, revolutionized our understanding of the cosmos and led to the recognition of the expanding universe paradigm. By meticulously studying the light emitted by distant galaxies, Hubble discerned a striking pattern: the spectral lines in their light were shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, indicating that these galaxies were receding from us. This remarkable discovery laid the groundwork for the concept of cosmic expansion—a cornerstone of modern cosmology.

Building upon Hubble’s seminal work, astronomers realized that the observed redshifts were not merely a consequence of galaxies’ motion within a static universe but rather indicative of a universal phenomenon: the expansion of space itself. The implications were profound: if galaxies are moving away from each other today, then, by extrapolating this motion backward in time, the universe must have been denser and hotter in the past.

This logical deduction led to the concept of a primordial epoch of extreme density and temperature—an era now known as the Big Bang singularity. At this singular moment, all matter and energy in the universe were concentrated into an unimaginably hot and dense state, marking the inception of cosmic evolution as we know it. Thus, Hubble’s pioneering observations, combined with subsequent theoretical developments, unveiled the dynamic and evolving nature of the universe, culminating in the paradigm-shifting concept of the Big Bang singularity.

Plasma As a Cosmic Fossil:

Plasma, often referred to as the fourth state of matter, consists of ionized fluid containing free electrons and positively charged ions. In the early universe, shortly after the Big Bang, the universe was extremely hot and dense, filled with a primordial soup of particles including protons, electrons, and photons. As the universe expanded and cooled, these particles underwent various interactions, eventually leading to the recombination of electrons and protons to form neutral hydrogen atoms. This recombination marked the era of cosmic recombination when the universe became transparent to light and cosmic microwave background radiation was emitted. However, within galaxies today, plasma persists in various forms, such as ionized gas clouds, hot interstellar medium, and plasma jets emanating from active galactic nuclei. The presence of plasma within galaxies serves as a cosmic fossil, preserving remnants of the universe’s early plasma-dominated epoch and providing valuable clues about its primordial conditions and subsequent evolution.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB):

The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in 1965 stands as a monumental milestone in our understanding of the universe’s origins and evolution, providing compelling evidence for the Big Bang Theory. The serendipitous detection of the CMB by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson using the Bell Labs’ Holmdel Horn Antenna fundamentally reshaped our cosmological perspective.

The CMB represents a faint, uniform glow of radiation permeating the cosmos, originating from the epoch when the universe transitioned from a hot, dense plasma to a transparent, expanding cosmos—a process known as recombination. The existence of the CMB, with its remarkably uniform temperature of approximately 2.725 Kelvin, is consistent with the predictions of Big Bang cosmology and offers a direct glimpse into the early universe’s conditions.

Furthermore, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched in 1989, played a pivotal role in advancing our understanding of the CMB. COBE’s Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) precisely measured the temperature fluctuations in the CMB across the sky, revealing tiny variations that reflect the primordial density fluctuations present in the early universe. These observations provided crucial support for the inflationary model of cosmic evolution, which posits that quantum fluctuations during the universe’s infancy gave rise to the seeds of cosmic structure observed today.

Thus, the discovery and subsequent characterization of the CMB, culminating in the remarkable achievements of the COBE mission, have solidified the Big Bang Theory as the cornerstone of modern cosmology, offering profound insights into the universe’s early history and setting the stage for further exploration of the cosmos.

Nucleosynthesis:

In the tumultuous aftermath of the Big Bang, during the universe’s formative moments, conditions were unimaginably extreme—hot, dense, and seething with energy. In this primordial crucible, the intense temperatures and pressures were conducive to nuclear reactions on a cosmic scale. Within the first few minutes of cosmic evolution, a process known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis commenced, giving rise to the synthesis of light elements that form the building blocks of cosmic chemistry.

Under the intense heat and density, protons and neutrons fused together to form heavier nuclei, creating a cosmic alchemy that birthed elements such as hydrogen, helium, and trace amounts of lithium. These light elements, forged in the fiery furnace of the early universe, would go on to shape the cosmos we inhabit today. Remarkably, the observed abundances of these primordial elements in the universe’s composition, as inferred from astronomical observations and laboratory measurements, closely align with the predictions of Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

The remarkable concordance between theoretical predictions and observational data provides compelling evidence for the Big Bang model’s validity and underscores its explanatory power in elucidating the universe’s early history. Indeed, the synthesis of light elements in the crucible of the Big Bang not only enriches our understanding of cosmic evolution but also serves as a poignant testament to the profound interconnectedness of the cosmos, where the elements that comprise stars, planets, and life itself trace their origins back to the fiery dawn of cosmic creation.

Cosmic Structure:

The large-scale structure of the universe, including galaxies, galaxy clusters, and cosmic filaments, has evolved over billions of years through dtnamic interactions. The distribution of cosmic structures observed today can be traced back to the initial conditions of the universe, consistent with the predictions of Big Bang cosmology.

While the evidence strongly supports the idea of a beginning to the universe in the Big Bang, it’s essential to note that our current understanding of cosmology has its limitations. Questions about what happened before the Big Bang, the nature of the initial singularity, and the ultimate fate of the universe are still areas of active research and debate in cosmology. Nonetheless, the concept of a universe with a beginning in the Big Bang remains one of the most successful and well-supported theories in modern cosmology.

Misconceptions in the Big Bang Theory

In the previous paragraphs, we presented a summary of how the Big Bang Theory made its way into cosmology and mainstream scientists. Now we shall discuss the misconceptions associated with the Big Bang Theory.

Timeline of the Cosmic Evolution

The notion of constructing a comprehensive timeline of cosmic evolution has long been a formidable challenge in cosmology, requiring a delicate interplay between theoretical models, observational data, and mathematical frameworks. Cosmologists have strived to unravel the intricate tapestry of cosmic history, piecing together the events and processes that have shaped the universe from its inception to the present day. Central to this endeavor are the mathematical assumptions and theoretical constructs that underpin our understanding of cosmic evolution, providing the scaffolding upon which our cosmological narratives are built.

However, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), with its unprecedented observational capabilities, has emerged as a transformative tool in the quest to scrutinize and refine our cosmic timeline. By peering deep into the cosmos with unparalleled clarity and sensitivity, the JWST has opened new vistas of exploration, allowing astronomers to probe the distant reaches of space and time with unprecedented precision. In doing so, the JWST has provided a powerful litmus test for the theoretical predictions and mathematical assumptions that underlie our understanding of cosmic evolution.

Indeed, the JWST’s observations have not merely corroborated existing models of cosmic evolution but have also challenged some of the established paradigms proposed by theoretical physicists. By unveiling new phenomena, unexpected discoveries, and tantalizing mysteries lurking in the depths of space, the JWST has prompted cosmologists to reevaluate and refine their conceptual frameworks, forcing a reexamination of the mathematical assumptions that underpin our cosmic narrative.

Yet, far from being a setback, this clash between theory and observation heralds a new era of discovery and enlightenment in cosmology. As theoretical physicists grapple with the implications of the JWST’s findings, they are propelled toward new frontiers of understanding, spurred on by the tantalizing prospect of unlocking the universe’s deepest secrets. In this dynamic interplay between theory and observation, mathematics and empirical data, lies the essence of scientific progress—a relentless quest for truth and understanding in the vast expanse of cosmic evolution.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has indeed revolutionized our understanding of the early universe by peering back in time to explore galaxies with redshifts near 11 (Gz11), pushing the boundaries of cosmic exploration to unprecedented depths. However, the discovery of mature galaxies just 400 million years after the Big Bang presents a perplexing challenge to our current estimates of the universe’s age.

According to the prevailing cosmological model, the universe is approximately 13.5 billion years old. This age is derived from a variety of observational data and theoretical models, including measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation, the Hubble constant, and the ages of the oldest stars and galaxies. However, the existence of mature galaxies at such early cosmic epochs—mere hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang—seems at odds with this estimated age.

In light of these findings, some researchers have proposed that our current estimates of the universe’s age may be too conservative. A new wave of research suggests that the universe could be significantly older than previously thought, potentially doubling the estimated age to around 27 billion years or more. This radical revision challenges our preconceived notions of cosmic evolution and underscores the need for a thorough reevaluation of our cosmological framework.

The implications of such a dramatic shift in our understanding of the universe’s age are profound. Not only would it necessitate a reassessment of existing theories and models, but it would also open new avenues of inquiry into the nature of cosmic evolution and the origins of structure in the universe. Moreover, it would underscore the dynamic and evolving nature of scientific inquiry, where new observations and discoveries continually reshape our understanding of the cosmos.

As we grapple with the implications of JWST’s groundbreaking observations and the tantalizing mysteries they unveil, one thing remains clear: the cosmos is a vast and enigmatic realm, filled with wonders that continue to challenge and inspire us. In the face of such profound uncertainty, it is the spirit of exploration and inquiry that drives us forward, pushing the boundaries of human knowledge and understanding in our quest to unlock the secrets of the universe.

Cosmic Flows

Cosmic flows refer to the large-scale motion of matter in the universe, encompassing the movements of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and even superclusters over cosmic distances. These flows are driven primarily by the density waves in the universe.

There are several key aspects to consider regarding cosmic flows:

  1. Large-Scale Structure: The distribution of galaxies and galaxy clusters in the universe is not uniform but rather forms a complex web-like structure known as the cosmic web. Cosmic flows are intimately connected to this large-scale structure, with matter flowing along filaments and into dense regions such as galaxy clusters under the influence of density waves.
  2. Peculiar Velocities: In addition to the Hubble expansion, which describes the overall expansion of the universe, galaxies and galaxy clusters have peculiar velocities—motions relative to the overall cosmic expansion. These peculiar velocities arise due to the gravitational attraction between nearby objects and can lead to deviations from the Hubble flow.
  3. Cosmic Flows Surveys: Observational efforts to map cosmic flows include large-scale galaxy surveys that measure the redshifts and distances of galaxies across the sky. By studying the distribution and velocities of galaxies, astronomers can infer the underlying gravitational field and understand how matter is flowing within the universe.
  4. Local Group Motion: Within the Local Group of galaxies, which includes the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies, there are significant peculiar velocities. The Milky Way and Andromeda are gravitationally bound to each other and are moving toward each other, which will eventually lead to a collision and merger billions of years in the future.

Overall, cosmic flows are a fundamental aspect of cosmology, providing insights into the dynamics and evolution of the universe on large scales. Studying cosmic flows allows astronomers to probe the underlying gravitational field, understand the distribution of matter, and test cosmological models.

The formulation of the Big Bang Theory marked a monumental shift in our understanding of the cosmos, reshaping our perceptions of the universe’s origin and evolution. However, in the early days of cosmology, there was a prevailing misconception that the universe’s expansion proceeded uniformly in all directions, without any preferred direction or flow. This misconception stemmed largely from Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the redshift-distance relation, which suggested that galaxies are receding from each other, implying an overall expansion of the universe.

However, as our observational capabilities have advanced, astronomers have uncovered a more nuanced picture of cosmic dynamics. Observations of large-scale structure in the universe have revealed the presence of cosmic flows—vast streams of galaxies and galaxy clusters moving with coherent motion across the cosmos. These cosmic flows represent deviations from the smooth, uniform expansion predicted by Hubble’s Law, challenging previous notions of cosmic homogeneity and isotropy.

Indeed, the existence of cosmic flows suggests that the universe’s expansion is not as uniform as once thought, with regions of space exhibiting preferential directions and motions. This realization has led to calls for a revision of Hubble’s Law to account for these deviations and better capture the complex dynamics of the cosmos. Instead of a simple linear relationship between distance and redshift, the observed cosmic flows imply a more intricate interplay between gravitational forces, cosmic structure, and the expansion of space itself.

As astronomers continue to probe the mysteries of cosmic flows and their implications for our understanding of the universe, they are confronted with new challenges and questions about the nature of cosmic dynamics. How do cosmic flows arise and evolve over cosmic time scales? What role do dark matter and dark energy play in shaping these large-scale motions? By unraveling the secrets of cosmic flows, astronomers hope to gain deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms driving the universe’s evolution and structure, ultimately advancing our understanding of the cosmos on both grand and intimate scales.

What is Dark Matter?

In astrophysics, dark matter refers to hypothetical matter that does not emit, absorb, or reflect electromagnetic radiation, making it invisible and undetectable through traditional telescopes. Its existence is inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, such as stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters.

The idea for dark matter primarily comes from observations of the rotational velocities of galaxies, the gravitational lensing of distant objects, and the large-scale structure of the universe. These observations suggest that there is much more mass in the universe than can be accounted for by visible matter alone. Dark matter is believed to make up about 27% of the total mass-energy content of the universe, with the remainder composed of dark energy (about 68%) and visible matter (about 5%).

Despite its pervasive influence on the universe’s structure and dynamics, the exact nature of dark matter remains one of the biggest mysteries in modern astrophysics. Various candidates have been proposed, including weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), axions, and primordial black holes, but so far, none have been definitively detected. Research in this area continues with experiments aiming to directly detect dark matter particles or indirectly observe their effects on cosmic phenomena.

The Hypothesis of Dark Matter

Fritz Zwicky’s observations of the Coma cluster in the 1930s were among the earliest indications that there might be more to the universe than meets the eye. He found that the galaxies within the cluster were moving at such high speeds that they should have escaped the cluster’s gravitational pull long ago. Zwicky proposed that there must be additional, unseen matter providing the extra gravitational force needed to hold the galaxies together within the cluster. He termed this mysterious, invisible substance “dark matter.”

Decades later, in the 1970s, Vera Rubin’s groundbreaking observations of individual spiral galaxies again highlighted the previous problem. Rubin studied the rotation curves of galaxies, plotting the velocities of stars or gas clouds within the galaxies against their distance from the galactic center. Typically, in systems governed only by visible matter, one would expect the rotational velocity to decrease as one moves farther from the center. However, Rubin found that the velocities remained constant or even increased with distance, suggesting the presence of unseen mass extending far beyond the visible extent of the galaxies.

Rubin’s work demonstrated that the stars at the outskirts of galaxies were moving too rapidly to be held in orbit by visible matter alone. This discrepancy between the observed rotational velocities and those predicted by the known distribution of luminous matter suggested the existence of substantial amounts of dark matter within galaxies.

These pioneering observations by Zwicky and Rubin provided the impetus for further research into dark matter and its role in the cosmos. Since then, scientists have utilized various observational techniques, theoretical models, and experimental approaches to study dark matter, aiming to unravel its nature and understand its influence on the universe’s large-scale structure and dynamics. Despite decades of investigation, however, the true identity of dark matter remains elusive, making it one of the most intriguing mysteries in modern astrophysics.

Why Dark Matter?

The proposal of dark matter as a solution to the peculiar velocities and cosmic flows of galaxies indeed stemmed from astronomers’ efforts to reconcile observed phenomena with the known laws of gravity. At the heart of this issue lies the discrepancy between the observed gravitational effects on cosmic scales and the mass inferred from visible matter alone. Early attempts to account for these gravitational anomalies using only the mass of baryonic matter—ordinary matter composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons—proved inadequate, as the calculated gravitational forces fell far short of those required to explain the observed motions of galaxies and galaxy clusters.

In light of these discrepancies, astronomers hypothesized the existence of dark matter—a form of matter that does not emit, absorb, or interact with electromagnetic radiation and thus remains invisible to traditional observational techniques. Dark matter was proposed as a means to supplement the gravitational influence of visible matter and provide the additional “gravitational force” needed to explain the observed cosmic velocities and structures.

However, the nature of dark matter remains one of the most profound mysteries in modern astrophysics. Despite extensive efforts to detect dark matter directly or indirectly, its elusive nature has thus far defied definitive identification. This has led some researchers to question whether the need for dark matter is a symptom of a deeper underlying issue in our understanding of gravity itself.

Indeed, the proposal of dark matter has sparked ongoing debates and investigations into the nature of gravity and its behavior on cosmic scales. Some alternative theories of gravity, such as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) or modified gravity (MOG), seek to explain observed gravitational phenomena without the need for dark matter by modifying the laws of gravity themselves. These theories offer intriguing possibilities for reconciling observed gravitational effects with the known distribution of visible matter in the universe.

In essence, the proposal of dark matter has prompted astronomers to rethink not only our understanding of the universe’s composition but also the fundamental nature of gravity itself. By exploring alternative theories and conducting ever more precise observations, astronomers strive to unravel the mysteries of cosmic gravity and shed light on the true nature of the cosmos.

Hubble Tension

The “Hubble Tension,” also known as the “Hubble Constant Tension,” refers to a discrepancy in the measured values of the Hubble constant—a parameter that quantifies the rate of expansion of the universe—between different observational methods. Specifically, the tension arises from the disparity between the value of the Hubble constant derived from measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) by the Planck satellite and the value obtained from observations of nearby galaxies using other methods, such as Type Ia supernovae or the cosmic distance ladder. This tension suggests that our current understanding of cosmology may be incomplete or that there may be unknown systematic errors in the measurements. Resolving the Hubble tension is a crucial goal in modern cosmology and could provide insights into the nature of dark energy, the geometry of the universe, and other fundamental aspects of cosmic evolution.

NASA observes in a recent article published on its official website:
We recently got our first Webb measurements from steps one and two which allows us to complete the distance ladder and compare to the previous measurements with Hubble (see figure) Webb’s measurements have dramatically cut the noise in the Cepheid measurements due to the observatory’s resolution at near-infrared wavelengths. This kind of improvement is the stuff astronomers dream of!  We observed more than 320 Cepheids across the first two steps. We confirmed that the earlier Hubble Space Telescope measurements were accurate, albeit noisier.   We have also observed four more supernova hosts with Webb and we see a similar result for the whole sample.

NASA states further:
What the results still do not explain is why the universe appears to be expanding so fast! We can predict the expansion rate of the universe by observing its baby picture, the cosmic microwave background, and then employing our best model of how it grows up over time to tell us how fast the universe should be expanding today. The fact that the present measure of the expansion rate significantly exceeds the prediction is a now decade-long problem called “The Hubble Tension.” The most exciting possibility is that the Tension is a clue about something we are missing in our understanding of the cosmos.

Spiral Universe Model

What the astronomers and cosmologists are missing in their cosmology? They are missing the true nature of the cosmos that exists in the form of Spiral Universe Model, a fundamental concept in the Islamic cosmology. The Spiral Universe Model provides a captivating and detailed framework that offers a unique perspective on the structure and dynamics of the cosmos.

Density Waves

The Spiral Universe Model presents a captivating alternative perspective on the origins of peculiar velocities and cosmic flows observed in galaxies. In this model, the intricate dance of cosmic structures is attributed to two key phenomena: density waves and the angular momentum of a spinning universe. Density waves, akin to the spiral arms seen in galaxies, are hypothesized to propagate through the cosmos, influencing the distribution of matter on large scales. These waves, arising from fluctuations in the density of matter, create regions of enhanced and diminished density as they traverse the universe, giving rise to the observed patterns of cosmic structure.

Central to the Spiral Universe Model is the concept of angular momentum, the rotational motion inherent in the universe as a whole. Just as a spinning top exhibits complex dynamics influenced by its angular momentum, the universe’s rotation imparts a subtle yet profound influence on cosmic evolution. As the universe spins, its gravitational interactions with matter generate swirling patterns of motion, akin to eddies in a cosmic sea. These rotational effects influence the trajectories of galaxies and galaxy clusters, shaping their peculiar velocities and directing their cosmic flows along intricate paths dictated by the universe’s rotation.

By synthesizing these elements—density waves and angular momentum—the Spiral Universe Model offers a compelling framework for understanding the observed dynamics of cosmic structures. Rather than attributing peculiar velocities solely to gravitational interactions between galaxies, this model posits a more nuanced interplay between cosmic density waves and the universe’s inherent rotation. Through this lens, the cosmos emerges as a dynamic, evolving entity, where the subtle interplay of density fluctuations and rotational motion shapes the rich tapestry of cosmic structure observed across the universe. While further exploration and testing are needed to fully assess the viability of the Spiral Universe Model, its intriguing insights provide a valuable complement to our understanding of cosmic evolution and offer new avenues for exploring the mysteries of the cosmos.

So there is no dark matter and dark energy according to Islamic cosmology.

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