May 18, 2024
myth of dark energy
Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that is thought to permeate all of space. This article is an effort to dismantle the myth of dark energy.

What is Dark Energy?

Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that is thought to permeate all of space and is driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. It was first proposed to explain the observation that distant galaxies are moving away from us at an accelerating rate, contrary to what one might expect based on the gravitational attraction of matter. This article is an effort to dismantle the myth of dark energy.

The incorporation of dark energy into the equations of the cosmic model, specifically in the framework of cosmology, is necessary to account for the observed accelerated expansion of the universe. The standard model of cosmology, known as the Lambda-CDM model, includes dark energy as a component alongside other constituents like ordinary matter (atoms), dark matter, and radiation.

The Myth of Dark Energy

The notion that dark energy might be a myth is a provocative viewpoint proposed by a group of astrophysicists and theoretical physicists, published in the renowned research magazine Scientific American‘. This perspective challenges the conventional understanding of cosmology, which incorporates dark energy as a crucial component to explain the observed accelerated expansion of the universe.

Advocates of this idea argue that the apparent need for dark energy arises from an incomplete understanding of classical physics on cosmological scales, rather than the presence of some mysterious form of energy permeating space. They suggest that modifications to Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which governs the behavior of gravity, could potentially account for the observed acceleration without invoking dark energy.

Some alternative theories propose modifications to gravity itself, such as modified gravity theories or theories that incorporate extra dimensions, as explanations for the observed cosmic acceleration. These theories seek to provide alternative explanations for cosmological observations while circumventing the need for dark energy.

James Webb Space Telescope Challenges Cosmic Model

HubbleSite observes:

Hubble has been measuring the current rate of the universe’s expansion for 30 years, and astronomers want to eliminate any lingering doubt about its accuracy. Now, Hubble and NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope have tag-teamed to produce definitive measurements, furthering the case that something else – not measurement errors – is influencing the expansion rate. 

“With measurement errors negated, what remains is the real and exciting possibility we have misunderstood the universe,” said Adam Riess, a physicist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Riess holds a Nobel Prize for co-discovering the fact that the universe’s expansion is accelerating, due to a mysterious phenomenon now called “dark energy.”

The University of Ottawa (Canada) observes on its official website in an article titled ‘Reinventing Cosmology‘:

Our universe could be twice as old as current estimates, according to a new study that challenges the dominant cosmological model and sheds new light on the so-called “impossible early galaxy problem.”

It goes further:

However, many scientists have been puzzled by the existence of stars like the Methuselah that appear to be older than the estimated age of our universe and by the discovery of early galaxies in an advanced state of evolution made possible by the James Webb Space Telescope.

The aforementioned research was published in the Royal Astronomical Society’s Monthy Notices. The author of the paper Rajendra Gupta (Professor at the University of Ottawa) shows his reservations about the Standard Cosmic Model:

Webbtelescope.org writes about the unpredicted number of earliest young galaxies:

Kevin Hainline of the University of Arizona in Tucson and his colleagues used Webb’s NIRCam (Near-Infrared Camera) instrument to obtain these measurements, called photometric redshifts and identified more than 700 candidate galaxies that existed when the universe was between 370 million and 650 million years old. The sheer number of these galaxies was far beyond predictions from observations made before Webb’s launch.

The discovery of early young but mature galaxies in an advanced state of evolution, made possible by the James Webb Space Telescope and other advanced observatories, further complicates our understanding of cosmic evolution. These galaxies, observed at great distances and therefore seen as they appeared in the early universe, exhibit characteristics such as mature structures, star formation, and chemical enrichment that challenge conventional models of galaxy formation and evolution.

Why abundance of young galaxies in the earliest universe shock the cosmologists? The abundance of young galaxies in the earliest universe surprises cosmologists because it challenges the Standard Cosmic Model. According to standard cosmological theories, the universe began as a hot, dense state shortly after the Big Bang, gradually cooling and expanding over billions of years. During this time, small fluctuations in density grew through gravitational attraction, leading to the formation of structures such as galaxies and galaxy clusters.

Is the Standard Cosmic Model Reliable?

The reliability of the Standard Cosmic Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model, which incorporates dark energy as a component, is a subject of ongoing debate and scrutiny within the scientific community. Critics argue that basing a standard model of cosmology on a hypothetical entity like dark energy, which has not been directly detected or fully understood, raises questions about the model’s reliability and validity.

The concern stems from the fact that dark energy remains one of the most elusive and enigmatic concepts in modern physics. Its existence was proposed to explain the observed ‘accelerated expansion’ of the universe, which runs counter to what one would expect based solely on the effects of gravity from visible matter. However, the nature and properties of dark energy are poorly understood, and its presence is inferred primarily from its supposed influence on cosmic expansion.

Spiral Universe Model

The Spiral Universe Model of the cosmos presents a unique and intriguing perspective on the nature of the universe, likening it to a giant spinning spiral galaxy. In this model, the cosmos is envisioned as a vast, interconnected structure that grows in volume over time, much like a spiral galaxy gradually expanding as it rotates.

Central to this concept is the idea that the expansion of the Spiral Universe is driven by the presence of a colossal white hole situated at the center of the universe. Unlike a black hole, which is known for its gravitational pull, a white hole is theorized to emit energy and matter outward. In this model, the white hole serves as a source of continuous energy that fuels the expansion of the universe, much like the heat in an oven causes a cake to rise and expand.

By envisioning the universe’s expansion in this manner, the Spiral Universe Model challenges the commonly held notion of cosmic expansion as analogous to the inflation of a balloon, where space itself stretches uniformly in all directions. Instead, it proposes a more dynamic and spiral-like growth pattern, with regions of the universe expanding outward in a manner reminiscent of the spiraling arms of a galaxy.

This model offers a fresh perspective on cosmology, suggesting that the universe’s structure and expansion may be more complex and intricate than previously imagined. It encourages further exploration and investigation into the underlying mechanisms driving cosmic evolution, inviting scientists to consider alternative frameworks and hypotheses in their quest to understand the cosmos.

Viktor Ambartsumian (1908-1996 CE) was a Soviet astronomer and astrophysicist best known for his theories concerning the origin and evolution of stars and stellar systems.

According to Ambartsumian, an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) expels out matter, which is a property of a white hole, instead of a black hole. This is what another Russian astronomer Anatoly V. Belyakov claims in his paper titled Are Quazars Whiteholes?  

Another Russian astronomer I.D Novikov referenced Ambartsumian’s article Voprosy Kosmologii (originally published in the Russian language in 1962) and shared Ambartsumian’s conclusions in these words:

Recently, V.A. Ambartsumyan emphasized that considerable masses of matter and of relativistic particles could be ejected from the centers of galaxies and that the temperature phenomena in giant galaxies and radio galaxies is due to the activity of the galactic nuclei.

Indeed, the concept of a white hole, as theorized in theoretical physics, presents a fascinating counterpart to the more well-known black hole. While a black hole is characterized by its intense gravitational pull, from which nothing, not even light, can escape, a white hole is envisioned as the opposite: a region of spacetime from which matter and energy can only emerge, never to return.

In the hypothetical scenario of a white hole, the outward expulsion of matter and energy contrasts sharply with the inward collapse seen in a black hole. This behavior aligns with the laws of thermodynamics, particularly the second law, which states that entropy, or disorder, tends to increase over time. In the context of a white hole, the outward flow of matter and energy represents an increase in entropy, as it leads to a dispersal of resources throughout the surrounding spacetime.

One intriguing aspect of white holes, as proposed in certain theoretical frameworks, is the suggestion that the matter and energy they expel may take the form of plasma gas. Plasma, often referred to as the fourth state of matter, consists of charged particles (ions and electrons) that exhibit collective behavior under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Plasma is abundant in the universe, found in phenomena such as stars, nebulae, and the interstellar medium.

The idea that a white hole emits plasma gas has profound implications for our understanding of cosmic phenomena. It suggests that white holes could serve as sources of energetic outflows, contributing to the enrichment and evolution of the surrounding interstellar and intergalactic medium. Furthermore, if white holes exist, their presence could potentially explain certain astrophysical phenomena that are currently not fully understood.

White holes arise from mathematical solutions to Einstein’s field equations of general relativity, and their properties and behavior are still subject to considerable debate and speculation within the scientific community. Nonetheless, the concept of white holes offers a tantalizing glimpse into the exotic and mysterious nature of the universe, inspiring further inquiry and exploration into the fundamental laws governing spacetime and cosmology.

Quasars are White Holes!

Anatoly V. Belyakov’s paper “Are Quasars White Holes?” presents a thought-provoking hypothesis that challenges conventional interpretations of quasars, suggesting instead that they may be remnants or manifestations of white holes. Quasars, short for quasi-stellar radio sources, are extremely bright and energetic objects found at the centers of some galaxies, thought to be powered by supermassive black holes accreting matter.

Belyakov’s proposal builds upon the concept of white holes, which are theoretical counterparts to black holes, expelling matter and energy outward rather than drawing them inward. In his paper, he posits that quasars exhibit characteristics reminiscent of white holes, particularly in their energetic outflows and emissions across various wavelengths of light, including radio, optical, and X-ray.

The idea that quasars could be related to white holes opens up intriguing possibilities for understanding these enigmatic objects. If quasars indeed represent the remnants of white holes, it suggests that their central engines may operate in fundamentally different ways than previously thought. Rather than accreting matter inwards, as black holes do, quasars could be expelling material outward in powerful jets and outflows, akin to the emissions expected from white holes.

Now some quasars have been reported to spew highly accelerated plasma as the following study observed. 

Carnegie’s Eduardo Bañados led a team that found a quasar with the brightest radio emission ever observed in the early universe, due to it spewing out a jet of extremely fast-moving material.

Bañados’ discovery was followed up by Emmanuel Momjian of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which allowed the team to see with unprecedented detail the jet shooting out of a quasar that formed within the universe’s first billion years of existence.

This newly discovered quasar, called PSO J352.4034-15.3373, is one of a rare breed that doesn’t just swallow matter into the black hole but also emits a jet of plasma traveling at speeds approaching that of light. This jet makes it extremely bright in the frequencies detected by radio telescopes. Although quasars were identified more than 50 years ago by their strong radio emissions, now we know that only about 10 percent of them are strong radio emitters.

quasar-with-white-hole

This evidence-based hypothesis has significant implications for our understanding of quasar physics and their role in galactic evolution. It implies that quasars may play a crucial role in shaping the environments of their host galaxies, influencing star formation, gas dynamics, and the distribution of matter on cosmic scales. Furthermore, if quasars are indeed linked to white holes, it raises the possibility of exploring new avenues in theoretical and observational astrophysics, probing the nature of spacetime and the dynamics of extreme environments in the universe.

While NASA supports Stephen Hawking’s model of expansion, they assume that it is a black hole in the center of a quasar, instead of a white hole. But because observational data does not support this idea, so they have to write the following sentence in caption of a quasar image:

“Quasars—accreting supermassive black holes—are paradoxically some of the brightest objects in the universe.”

No doubt, believing in the presence of a black hole in the center of a quasar (Active Galactic Nuceous) is more than a ‘paradox’.

For detailed evidences of Spiral Universe Model, click this link.

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