May 18, 2024
Makkah al mukarramah
Makkah, the holiest city in Islam, holds a sacred significance as the Qiblah, the direction towards which Muslims turn in their prayers.

Makkah, the holiest city in Islam, holds a sacred significance as the Qiblah, the direction towards which Muslims turn in their prayers. Five times a day, billions of the Muslims around the world face towards the Kaabah, the sacred structure located in the heart of Makkah, as they perform their obligatory prayers.

The Qiblah serves as a unifying symbol for Muslims, directing their focus and devotion towards a central point of worship. It represents a physical and spiritual connection to the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Isma’il (Ishmael), who are believed to have built the Kaaba as a sanctuary for monotheistic worship.

Facing towards Makkah during prayers not only demonstrates unity among Muslims but also fosters a sense of spiritual alignment with the origins of Islam. It symbolizes humility and submission to the will of Allah, as believers turn towards the holiest site in Islam to seek guidance, forgiveness, and blessings.

The significance of Makkah as the Qiblah underscores its central role in the religious life of Muslims worldwide. It serves as a constant reminder of the unity of the Muslim ummah (community) and the timeless connection between believers and their faith. Ultimately, the Qiblah of Makkah represents the spiritual axis around which the daily lives of Muslims revolve, guiding them on their journey of faith and devotion.

Understanding Makkah al-Mukarramah as the Center of the Earth

In the Islamic tradition, the city of Makkah al-Mukarramah holds profound significance as the holiest site in Islam. Beyond its religious importance, scholars and researchers have delved into the linguistic and spiritual dimensions of its title, “Umm al-Qura,” translating to “Mother of the Towns” or “Center of the Towns.” This term, mentioned in the Qur’an, has sparked considerable contemplation and exploration among Muslim intellectuals, leading to the assertion that Makkah is not only the spiritual center of Islam but also holds a unique geographical centrality.

The Qur’anic reference to Makkah as Umm al-Qura is found in Surah Al-An’am (6:92), where it states, “And this is a Book which We have sent down, blessed and confirming what was before it, that you may warn the Center of Towns and those around it.” This verse has been interpreted in various ways, but one prevailing interpretation posits that Makkah is referred to as the Mother of Towns due to its primordial status and central role in Islamic civilization.

The concept of Makkah as the “Center of Towns” encompasses several layers of meaning. Firstly, it underscores the city’s historical importance as the birthplace of Islam and the site of the Kaaba, the sacred structure built by the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Isma’il (Ishmael). The Kaaba serves as the focal point of Muslim worship, attracting millions of pilgrims from around the world every year during the Hajj pilgrimage.

Moreover, the designation of Makkah as the “Center of Towns” implies its role as a spiritual and cultural hub that radiates influence across the Islamic world. It is from Makkah that the message of Islam spread to various regions, shaping the development of cities and civilizations throughout history. As such, Makkah serves as a metaphorical mother, nurturing the growth and dissemination of Islamic principles and values.

However, beyond its metaphorical significance, some Muslim researchers have extrapolated a deeper meaning from the term Umm al-Qura, suggesting that it denotes a geographical centrality of Makkah on the Earth’s surface. This interpretation stems from the linguistic analysis of the term, which denotes a central or pivotal position. Proponents of this view argue that Makkah’s geographical coordinates align with its spiritual significance, positioning it at the heart of the terrestrial surface.

While this interpretation may seem symbolic or metaphorical to some, others assert that it reflects a deeper cosmic order embedded within the Islamic worldview. They argue that just as Makkah holds a central position in the spiritual realm of Islam, it also occupies a central place in the physical world, symbolizing harmony and balance in the universe.

It is important to note that interpretations of religious texts, including the Qur’an, are subject to diverse perspectives and scholarly debates within the Islamic tradition. The concept of Makkah as the “Center of Towns” and its potential geographical centrality represents one interpretation among many, shaped by linguistic analysis, historical context, geographical facts, and spiritual insight.

Regardless of the interpretation, the significance of Makkah al-Mukarramah as the holiest site in Islam remains indisputable. It continues to serve as a beacon of faith and unity for Muslims worldwide, drawing pilgrims and visitors seeking spiritual fulfillment and connection to their religious heritage.

In conclusion, the term Umm al-Qura encapsulates the multifaceted significance of Makkah al-Mukarramah in Islamic thought and tradition. Whether interpreted metaphorically as the “Center of Towns” or understood geographically as the center of the Earth, Makkah’s importance transcends mere physical location, embodying the spiritual essence of Islam and its universal message of peace, unity, and devotion to the Divine.

Cartographic Distortion and Makkah Meridian

Map projections serve as crucial tools in cartography, enabling the representation of the Earth’s three-dimensional surface on a two-dimensional plane. However, the inherent differences between the curved surface of the Earth and a flat map inevitably lead to distortions in various aspects of mapping, such as area, shape, distance, and direction. Over the years, cartographers and geographers have devoted significant efforts to developing map projections that minimize these distortions, striving to create maps that accurately reflect the Earth’s features.

The assertion that Makkah al-Mukarramah occupies a central position on the Earth’s surface transcends mere spiritual symbolism; it is supported by certain geographical factors, including challenges in cartography and the adoption of alternative map projections.

One of the fundamental issues in cartography is the inability of two-dimensional maps to accurately represent both the shape and size of continents simultaneously. This challenge, known as the cartographic distortion problem, has led cartographers to explore alternative techniques to create more accurate representations of the Earth’s surface.

Example of Cartographic Distortion

One of the most striking examples of cartographic distortions is the misrepresentation of relative sizes among land masses on certain map projections. A classic illustration of this distortion is the apparent size discrepancy between Greenland and South America. While Greenland appears disproportionately large on some maps, it is actually significantly smaller than South America in reality. In fact, South America is approximately eight times larger than Greenland in terms of land area.

This discrepancy stems from the use of map projections that prioritize certain characteristics, such as preserving direction or minimizing distortion in specific regions. The Mercator projection, for instance, which is commonly used in navigation due to its accurate representation of direction, significantly distorts the sizes of landmasses, particularly those at high latitudes. As a result, Greenland, situated near the North Pole, appears much larger than it is in reality, while equatorial regions such as South America are compressed.

The distortion of Greenland’s size relative to South America can lead to misconceptions about the geographic scale of these regions. On maps where Greenland appears disproportionately large, viewers may mistakenly perceive it as a landmass of considerable significance or comparable size to continents like South America. This misperception can affect public understanding of global geography and geopolitical relationships.

To address this issue, cartographers and educators often emphasize the importance of using map projections that prioritize equal area or minimize distortions across various aspects of mapping. Projections like the Gall-Peters or Robinson projection, which aim to preserve equal area while balancing other characteristics, offer a more accurate representation of the true size of landmasses. By employing such projections, educators and map users can ensure a more faithful depiction of the Earth’s features and foster a deeper understanding of global geography.

Solutions to Cartographic Distortion

Among these techniques, the use of polyhedral map projections, such as cube or hexagon-shaped maps, has gained prominence. These projections aim to minimize distortion by dividing the Earth’s surface into uniform shapes that can be unfolded into a flat surface.

Polyhedral map projections represent an innovative approach to solving the age-old problem of representing the spherical Earth on a two-dimensional surface. Rather than attempting to flatten the globe onto a single plane, polyhedral projections utilize the surfaces of polyhedra, such as cubes, octahedra, or icosahedra, which can be unfolded and laid flat for printing.

One of the earliest known examples of polyhedral map projections dates back to Albrecht Dürer’s 1525 book, “Underweysung der Messung” (Painter’s Manual). Dürer presented methods for unfolding spheres onto polyhedra like the icosahedron and the cuboctahedron, offering a novel solution to the challenges of mapmaking.

Interestingly, when cartographers construct cube or hexagon-shaped maps of the world, they encounter the necessity of positioning the meridian of Makkah at the center. The meridian of Makkah, also known as the Qiblah line, represents the direction towards which Muslims face during their prayers, making it a crucial reference point in Islamic cartography.


The concept of a polyhedral cube map of the world offers a unique and intriguing perspective on mapmaking. By unfolding the globe onto the six equal sides of a cube, cartographers can create a map that minimizes distortion and provides a balanced representation of the Earth’s surface. What’s particularly fascinating about this approach is how it highlights the central role of the Meridian of Makkah, also known as the Qiblah line, in the unfolded map.

When the world-cube is unfolded, each side of the cube represents a different region of the Earth’s surface. As cartographers carefully arrange the unfolded cube, they ensure that the Meridian of Makkah (shown in pink colour in the unfolded world-cube map) lies at the center of the map. This deliberate positioning acknowledges the spiritual significance of Makkah in the Islamic faith and underscores its centrality in both religious and geographic contexts.

The Meridian of Makkah serves as a reference point for Muslims around the world, indicating the direction in which they should face during their prayers. By positioning this meridian at the center of the unfolded cube map, cartographers honor the importance of Makkah while also providing a tangible representation of its geographical centrality.

Moreover, the placement of the Meridian of Makkah at the center of the map reflects the broader concept of Makkah as the “Mother of Towns” or the “Center of the Towns” as mentioned in the Qur’an. This designation encompasses not only the city’s spiritual significance but also its symbolic role as a focal point of human civilization and cultural exchange.

By integrating the Meridian of Makkah into the design of the polyhedral cube map, cartographers invite viewers to contemplate the interconnectedness of spiritual beliefs and geographic realities. The unfolded map serves as a visual reminder of Makkah’s timeless importance and its enduring influence on the global community.

The observation that a circle drawn with Makkah as its center encompasses the entirety of the populated world on the globe is indeed intriguing and carries profound implications in both geographical and spiritual contexts. This unique geometric phenomenon underscores the special significance of Makkah as a central point not only in Islamic tradition but also in the broader human experience.

From a geographical perspective, the ability to draw a circle around the populated world with Makkah as its center reflects the strategic location of the city within the Arabian Peninsula. Situated at the crossroads of major trade routes and within relatively close proximity to various regions of the world, Makkah has historically served as a hub of commerce, pilgrimage, and cultural exchange.

The geographic centrality of Makkah is further emphasized by its position along ancient caravan routes that connected the Arabian Peninsula to Africa, Asia, and Europe. These trade networks facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and knowledge, contributing to Makkah’s role as a melting pot of diverse cultures and civilizations.

Moreover, the ability to encompass the populated world within a circle drawn from Makkah highlights the city’s significance as a focal point of human connectivity and interaction. Throughout history, Makkah has drawn pilgrims, travelers, and merchants from far and wide, fostering connections that transcend geographical boundaries and cultural differences.

The symbolism of drawing a circle around the populated world with Makkah as its center resonates deeply with the concept of unity and universality in Islam. It reflects the belief that all believers, regardless of their geographic location or cultural background, are interconnected through their devotion to Allah and their shared reverence for Makkah as the spiritual heart of Islam.

Furthermore, the ability to encompass the entire populated world within a circle drawn from Makkah underscores the inclusive nature of Islam, which transcends ethnic, linguistic, and national boundaries. It serves as a powerful reminder of the universality of the Islamic message and the unity of the Muslim ummah (community) across the globe.

In conclusion, the polyhedral cube map of the world offers a captivating representation of the Earth’s surface, with the Meridian of Makkah positioned at its center. This deliberate placement underscores the spiritual and geographic significance of Makkah, inviting viewers to reflect on its central role in both religious devotion and human civilization.

By placing Makkah’s meridian at the center of these polyhedral map projections, cartographers inadvertently highlight the city’s geographical centrality. This alignment reinforces the notion that Makkah occupies a pivotal position on the Earth’s surface, not only in spiritual terms but also in geographical representations.

Moreover, the choice to position Makkah at the center of cube or hexagon-shaped maps reflects the city’s historical and cultural significance beyond the realm of Islam. Throughout history, Makkah has served as a crossroads of civilizations, a hub of trade and pilgrimage, and a focal point of cultural exchange.

The alignment of Makkah’s meridian at the center of certain map projections underscores the city’s enduring relevance as a global landmark. It serves as a tangible reminder of the interconnectedness of human societies and the universal appeal of Makkah’s spiritual and cultural heritage.

In conclusion, the geographical factors underlying the positioning of Makkah’s meridian at the center of certain map projections provide further credence to the idea of Makkah as the center of the Earth’s surface. While cartography grapples with the challenges of accurately representing the world, the alignment of Makkah in map projections serves as a symbolic and practical affirmation of the city’s unique significance in both spiritual and geographical contexts.

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