May 18, 2024
Esfahan, also spelled Isfahan, is a city located in central Iran, renowned for its rich history, cultural heritage, and architectural splendor.


Esfahan, also spelled Isfahan, is a city located in central Iran, renowned for its rich history, cultural heritage, and architectural splendor. Serving as the capital of Persia during the Safavid dynasty, Esfahan flourished as a center of art, science, and commerce. The city is celebrated for its stunning mosques, synagogues, palaces, bridges, and bazaars, which showcase the intricate beauty of architecture.

The Kingdom of Judah, known in Hebrew as יְהוּדָה‎ (Yəhūdā), was a significant Israelite kingdom that flourished during the Iron Age in Levant. Its historical prominence is deeply intertwined with the narratives of ancient Israelite history, particularly during the period of monarchy and subsequent exile.

The significance of the Kingdom of Judah for Jews extends beyond its geopolitical borders. It symbolizes the continuity of Israelite identity and heritage, serving as a focal point for religious and cultural identity among Jews worldwide. The name “Jews” itself derives from “Judah,” reflecting the lineage and historical legacy of this ancient kingdom.

The Jewish Virtual Library says:

The Jewish community of Persia, modern-day Iran, is one of the oldest in the Diaspora, and its historical roots reach back to the 6th century B.C.E., the time of the First Temple

Destruction of the First Temple

In 586 BC, Bukht Nasr (Nebuchadnezzar), the king of Babylonia, destroyed the Juda including the First Temple established by the Prophet Sulayman/Solomon (peace be upon him). The Babylonian Captivity, also known as the Babylonian Exile, stands as a pivotal period in Jewish history, marking a profound and transformative chapter in the narrative of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. Lasting for several decades, this period saw a significant portion of the Judean population taken into captivity by the Babylonian Empire, altering the course of Jewish civilization and shaping its collective identity for generations to come.

Encyclopedia Iranica cited the famous geographers Ya’qut Al-Hamawi, Al-Maqdisi, Ibn al-Faqih, and Ibn Hawqal to say that when Bakht Nasr captured Babylonia and Palestine, many Jews fled from there and sought refuge in Persia. These Jewish refugees settled in the city of Esfahan and during that time they named it “Yahudiah” (Judah) to commemorate their Kingdom of Judah.

The Babylonian Captivity eventually came to an end with the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. Under Persian rule, the exiled Judeans were granted permission to return to their homeland and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem, marking the beginning of a new chapter in Jewish history known as the Second Temple period. Despite the challenges they had faced in exile, the Judeans returned to Judea with a renewed sense of purpose and determination, carrying with them the lessons learned and the spiritual insights gained during their time in Babylon.

Though the Jews were allowed to return to their homeland, still many of them decided to live in Persia. There are five books or scrolls in the Old Testament, called Torah by the Jews. The fifth scroll is called the Scroll of Esther. This book tells the story of Esther, a Jewish woman who becomes queen of Persia and saves her people from genocide. The Jews celebrate this event as Purim, in the 12th month of the Jewish calendar called Adar. It proves the presence of Jews in Persia after the end of Babylonian Captivity.

Destruction of the Second Temple

The Roman Emperor Titus attacked Jerusalem in 70 CE and destroyed the city along with the Second Temple. The destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE marked a significant turning point in Jewish history, leading to the dispersal (Diaspora) of the Jewish people and the transformation of religious practice.

Esfahan holds historical significance for Jewish people as one of the oldest Jewish settlements in Iran. Jews have lived in Esfahan for millennia, contributing to the city’s cultural diversity and enriching its social fabric. The Jewish community in Esfahan has played a vital role in the city’s commercial, artistic, and intellectual life, leaving an indelible mark on its history.

Moreover, Esfahan has been home to several Jewish landmarks, including synagogues and cemeteries, which serve as tangible reminders of the Jewish presence in the city throughout the centuries. These sites hold religious and cultural significance for Jewish residents and visitors, preserving the heritage and traditions of Esfahan’s Jewish community.

In his treatise Tarikh Esfahan (History of Esfahan), the Muslim scholar Abu Nuaym Al-Esfahani (died 1038 CE / 430 AH) related a story of how the Jewish community founded their settlement in Esfahan. Abu Nuaym Al-Esfahani observes:
Story of Nushajan, from his uncle Ya’qub al-Nasrani, the scribe of Ahmad ibn Abd al-Aziz, that Firuz bin Yazdegerd wrote to some of the kings of the Romans to send him a sage from their wise rulers and a skilled physician from their doctors. He chose a man from the countries of his kingdom, so when he visited Firuz, he said to him: “O wise one, I have brought you to our land to choose for us a country from our kingdom in which these four great pillars are well established, with their safety, the lives of animals lengthen, and with their moderation, bodies enjoy health and are spared disease,” meaning by the four pillars: the earth, water, air, and fire. He said: “O king, how can you ascertain that?” He said: “Settle in the countries of my kingdom, so whatever your choice falls on, write to me about it for me to proceed with its enhancement and to make it the seat of my kingdom, and to move to it.” The Roman chose a delegation from the countries of his kingdom, and his choice fell on Esfahan, so he stayed there and wrote to the King: “I have roamed through your kingdom and I have reached a town that is not marred by any of its pillars being corrupted, and I have alighted from it between the fortresses of the village of Yuwan. So if the king sees fit to grant me the area between the two fortresses of the land of Yuwan and to grant me the construction of a synagogue and a house, then he should grant his request.” So he granted him his request, and he built his house opposite the two fortresses, and its ground became the place of the houses of Nushajan and Ishaq from Yuwan until the present time, and he built the market opposite the other fortress, and he assigned the other fortress the place of the worship at the grand mosque today.

Esfahan’s Role in the Islamic Eschatology

Anas bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The Dajjal (Antichrist) will emerge from the Jewish settlement of Isfahan, accompanied by 70,000 Jews, each with a green shawl hanging over his shoulders.”

[Sahih Muslim: H#2944, Musnad Imam Ahmad: H#13377]
In the rich tapestry of Islamic tradition, Hadith plays a crucial role in guiding believers and providing insights into future events. Among the prophetic narrations, one stands out for its profound significance and its implications for the Muslim community: the Hadith regarding Dajjal’s headquarters. This narrative, attributed to the beloved companion Anas bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him), serves as a beacon of warning and a call to vigilance against the forces of deception.

Unraveling the Hadith:

The Hadith, transmitted through Anas bin Malik, portrays a striking image of the Dajjal, the Antichrist, emerging from the Jewish settlement of Esfahan. Accompanied by a formidable army of 70,000 followers, each adorned with a distinctive green shawl, the Dajjal embodies the embodiment of falsehood and deception. This prophetic vision serves as a stark reminder of the challenges that lie ahead and the need for unwavering faith in the face of adversity.

Symbolism and Interpretation:

Esfahan, renowned for its historical significance and cultural heritage, takes center stage in this Hadith as the chosen headquarters of the Dajjal. Symbolically, its mention underscores the complexities of religious identity and the potential for distortion and manipulation. Furthermore, the imagery of the green shawls worn by the Dajjal’s followers symbolizes the allure of materialism and the seductive power of falsehood.

Implications for Believers:

The Hadith about Dajjal’s headquarters holds profound implications for Muslims worldwide. It serves as a reminder of the ongoing struggle between truth and falsehood and the importance of remaining steadfast in faith. Moreover, it underscores the need for vigilance against deception and false prophets, urging believers to cultivate discernment and spiritual resilience.

Looking Ahead:

As we reflect on the prophetic narrative surrounding Dajjal’s headquarters, we are reminded of the timeless wisdom embedded within Islamic tradition. In an age marked by uncertainty and upheaval, the Hadith serves as a guiding light, illuminating the path towards spiritual clarity and moral integrity. By heeding its message, believers can navigate the challenges of the modern world with steadfastness and conviction, ultimately drawing closer to the divine truth.

The choice of Esfahan as the headquarters of Dajjal (the Antichrist) in Islamic eschatological narratives requires critical thinking to understand its strategic importance within the context of these traditions. While specific reasons may vary depending on interpretations, several factors could contribute to this narrative:

  1. Symbolic Significance: Esfahan’s selection as the headquarters of Dajjal may carry symbolic weight within Islamic eschatology. The city’s historical and cultural significance, coupled with its association with Jewish communities, could serve to underscore the complexities of the end times and the spiritual battle between good and evil.
  2. Strategic Location: Esfahan’s geographic location, situated in the heart of Iran, could provide strategic advantages for Dajjal’s operations. Its central position within the region could facilitate control and influence over surrounding territories, allowing for the consolidation of power and the implementation of Dajjal’s agenda.
  3. Cultural and Religious Diversity: Esfahan’s diverse population, which includes Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other religious groups, could offer opportunities for manipulation and exploitation by Dajjal. The city’s multicultural environment may provide fertile ground for sowing discord and spreading deception, furthering Dajjal’s aims.

Regarding the choice of Esfahan over Jerusalem as the headquarters of Dajjal, several factors could be considered:

  1. Prophecy and Divine Decree: Islamic eschatological traditions may suggest that certain events, including the choice of Dajjal’s headquarters, are predetermined by divine decree. While Jerusalem holds immense religious significance for Jews, Christians, and Muslims alike, the narrative surrounding Dajjal’s emergence may unfold according to a specific scriptural framework.
  2. Political and Geopolitical Dynamics: The state of affairs in Jerusalem and the broader Middle East at the time of Dajjal’s emergence could play a role in his strategic calculations. If Jerusalem were to be liberated or controlled by forces aligned against Dajjal, he may opt for an alternative stronghold from which to exert his influence and pursue his objectives.
  3. Narrative Complexity: The narrative surrounding Dajjal’s emergence is multifaceted and subject to interpretation within Islamic eschatology. While Jerusalem’s significance in religious prophecy is undeniable, the choice of Esfahan as Dajjal’s headquarters may introduce layers of complexity and nuance to the eschatological narrative, prompting believers to contemplate the deeper meanings and implications of these events.

Regarding the liberation of Palestine and the role of Imam Al-Mahdi, Islamic eschatological traditions indeed depict the eventual liberation of Jerusalem and the establishment of justice under the leadership of Imam Al-Mahdi before the emergence of Dajjal. This narrative underscores the belief in the eventual triumph of righteousness over oppression and tyranny, as prophesied in Islamic teachings.

Esfahan in the Jewish Eschatology

While Esfahan may not have a prominent role in traditional Jewish eschatological beliefs regarding the advent of the Messiah, it’s worth exploring the potential significance of the city within the broader context of Jewish messianic expectations and traditions. While specific references to Esfahan may not be found in Jewish scripture or classical rabbinic literature, interpretations and speculations regarding the Messiah and the fulfillment of messianic prophecies can vary among Jewish communities and scholars.

A renowned Muslim theologian Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastān (1086–1153 CE) mentions a Jewish sect (Al-Esawiyah) who claimed that Abu Isa Ishaq ibn Ya’qub Al-Isfahani is the Messiah, awaited by the Jews. It proves that Isfahan has some link with eschatological events in Jewish traditions.

Here are some possible ways Esfahan could be considered within Jewish eschatological thinking:

  1. Historical Jewish Presence: Esfahan, historically known as a multicultural and cosmopolitan city, has been home to Jewish communities for centuries. Jewish presence in Esfahan may evoke associations with the dispersion and resilience of the Jewish people throughout history, aspects that are often intertwined with messianic hopes for redemption and restoration.
  2. Mystical and Kabbalistic Interpretations: Within Jewish mystical traditions, such as Kabbalah, eschatological themes are often explored through symbolic and allegorical lenses. While there may not be explicit references to Esfahan in Kabbalistic texts, Kabbalists may interpret historical events and geographic locations in ways that align with messianic expectations and spiritual aspirations.
  3. Geopolitical Considerations: Esfahan’s strategic location in Iran, as well as its historical significance as a center of culture and learning, may lead some Jewish thinkers to speculate about its potential role in future geopolitical developments and the fulfillment of messianic prophecies. Speculations about Esfahan in Jewish eschatological thinking could stem from a desire to make sense of contemporary events within the framework of traditional beliefs about the Messiah and the end of days.

It’s important to note that interpretations of eschatological themes within Judaism can vary widely among different Jewish denominations and movements. While Esfahan may not hold a prominent place in mainstream Jewish eschatological thinking, it’s possible that some Jewish scholars and communities may explore esoteric or speculative interpretations that include references to Esfahan or other geographic locations in the context of their messianic expectations. Ultimately, the significance of Esfahan in Jewish eschatology, if any, would depend on individual interpretations and traditions within the diverse tapestry of Jewish thought and belief.


In conclusion, the Hadith about Dajjal’s headquarters stands as a testament to the enduring relevance of prophetic wisdom in the lives of believers. Its significance extends far beyond a mere prediction of future events; rather, it serves as a timeless reminder of the eternal struggle between truth and falsehood. As we confront the trials and tribulations of our time, may we draw inspiration from this prophetic narrative and strive to uphold the values of faith, integrity, and righteousness.

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