June 23, 2024

 

Daleel at-Talib: Unit # 4: Wudhu

Wudhu (Minor Ablution)[1]

Saying Bismillah is Wajib
(essential), it is eliminated if one misses it forgetfully. But if he recalls
it during Wudhu, then he should perform Wudhu from the beginning.[2]
There are six obligatory acts in Wudhu:

Obligatory Acts in Wudhu:

(i)  Washing the
face entirely, including rinsing the mouth and snuffing water[3]

(ii)        
Washing the
forearms including elbows[4]

(iii)     
Wiping over
the head entirely, including the ears[5]

(iv)     
Washing the
feet including ankles[6]

(v)         
Order[7]

(vi)     
Muwalat (washing the limbs consecutively)[8]

Prerequisites For Wudhu

There are eight prerequisites[9]
for Wudhu:

(i)            
Whatever obligates Wudhu should
be over[10]

(ii)        
Intention[11]

(iii)     
Islam[12]

(iv)     
Sanity [13]

(v)         
Adolescence[14]

(vi)     
Lawful clean water[15]

(vii)  
Removing the materials (from organs of
wudhu) that resist absorption of water[16]

(viii)          
Al-Istinja
or Al-Istijmar
(after using lavatory)[17]

Niyah (intention) means determination for lifting
ritual impurity; or determination for an act that requires purification like Salaah
(prayers),[18]
Tawaaf (circumambulation around Ka’abah
at Makkah)[19],
touching the Holy Quran[20];
or determination for an act that is recommended purification[21]
like reciting Quran[22],
remembering Allah Almighty[23],
Adhan
(calling for prayers)[24],
going to bed[25],
removing doubt (whether Wudhu is nullified or not)[26],
in case of anger and unlawful speech[27],
staying in Masjid[28],
teaching knowledge[29]
and eating meal[30].
If somebody intended for something from aforementioned acts, but he spoke
something different verbally, the ritual impurity is removed and this
difference does not harm at all[31].
Likewise doubt in intention or performance of an obligatory act, after
completing an act of worship, does not harm but if doubt persits while offering
an act of worship, it is nullified and should be repeated (after confirmation).[32]

Description of Wudhu:

He intends (for Wudhu)
and says Bismillah (In the name of Allah), washes both hands, then rinse
his mouth and snuffs water. Then he washes his face from the general hairline
of the head; washing external side of beard is sufficient provided that it does
not reveal the skin. Then he washes his both forearms including his elbows.
Slight dirt under nails and the like does not harm. Then he wipes the whole
surface of his head from the line of his face to the nape, while white skin
above ears is part of the head, while he inserts his index fingers into the
ear-holes and wipes the external part of the ears with his thumbs. Then he
washes his feet including ankles that are two protruded bones.

Recommended Acts in Wudhu:

Eighteen acts are recommended
in Wudhu:

(i)            
Facing
Qiblah[33]

(ii)        
Using Siwak
(tooth-stick)[34]

(iii)     
Washing both
hands thrice [35]

(iv)     
Beginning
washing the face with rinsing mouth and snuffing water(respectively)[36]

(v)         
Letting
water to reach in the maximum depth in case of rinsing mouth and snuffing
water, unless he is fasting.[37]

(vi)     
Perfecting
the washing of all the organs (of wudhu) generally[38]

(vii)  
Using
comparatively extra water while washing the face[39]

(viii)          
Running the
wet fingers through the thick beard[40]

(ix)      
Running wet
fingers in between the fingers[41]

(x)         
Taking fresh
water for wiping the ears[42]

(xi)      
Beginning  with the right limb before the left one[43]

(xii)  
Washing the
limbs beyond the obligatory parts[44]

(xiii)           
Washing
twice and thrice[45]

(xiv)Persistence of intention till to finish Wudhu[46]

(xv)   
Presence of
intention when washing hands[47]

(xvi)Reciting words of intention silently[48]

(xvii)        
After
completing Wudhu reciting the following phrases while he lifts his gaze
to the sky

:

اشھد ان لا الٰہ الا
اللہ وحدہ لا شریک لہ و اشھد ان محمداً عبدہ و رسولہ

(I bear witness that there is no
god but Allah, He has no partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His
slave and messenger.)[49]

(xviii)    
Performing Wudhu
without somebody’s assistance[50]



[1] WUDHU: Wudu is a
ritual purification required for acts of worship like Salaah, reciting the
Qur’an, remembering names of Allah Almighty etc.

[2] DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FARDH AND WAJIB:Generally,
the two terms Fardh and Wajib stands against each other, but while
discussing components of Ritual practices, these terms are treated differently.
Fradh is an obligatory act that is required in all cases except in case
of a valid excuse. If Fardh is missed without a valid excuse, whether
intentionally or erroneously, the ritual practice is considered null and void.
Say if a Fardh of Wudhu is missed, the whole Wudhu is null
and void and it needs to be repeated from the beginning. On the other hand Wajib
is also an essential component of a Ritual practice, but if it is missed out of
forgetfulness, the ritual practice is still valid, but if it is missed
intentionally, it makes the practice null and void. For instance if somebody
forgets saying Bismillah in the beginning of Wudhu, it is still valid.
But if he does not say Bismillah intentionally, the Wudhu is null
and void. However if he recalls Bismillah during performing Wudhu, he
should perform Wudhu from the beginning.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the
Messenger of Allah (
)
said: The prayer of a person who does not perform ablution is not valid, and
the ablution of a person who does not mention the name of Allah (in the
beginning) is not valid.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 9408, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.101, Sunan Ibni
Majah:H.399]

Saeed bin Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail reported same words from the
Messenger of Allah (
).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23624]

Imam Bukhari said that Saeed’s Hadith is the most reliable
report on this subject. [Al-Muntaqa by Abdussalam ibni Taymiyah]

[3] WASHING THE ENTIRE FACE:
Most of the obligatory acts of Wudhu have been taken from Surah
Al-Maidah.

 “O you who believe!
When you intend to offer As-Salaah (the prayer), wash your faces and your
hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads,
and (wash) your feet up to ankles…” (Al-Ma’idah 6)

So washing the entire face, from right ear lobe to left ear
lobe and from forehead to underneath chin, is obligatory. The
Messenger of Allah ()
always rinsed the mouth and snuffed water while performing Wudhu. It is
the Prophetic explanation of the aforementioned Ayah. Even when he washed each
organ only once, he did not forget to rinse mouth and snuff water. So Rinsing
mouth and snuffing water is also part of washing face.

Humran R.A (the slave of ‘Uthman) narrated, “I saw Uthman bin
Affan
(May Allah be pleased with him) asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought)
he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right
hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting
water in it and then blowing it out. then he washed his face and forearms up to
the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to
the ankles thrice. Then he said, “Allah’s Messenger (
) said ‘If anyone performs ablution like that of mine and offers
a two-rak’at prayer during which he does not think of anything else (not
related to the present prayer) then his past sins will be forgiven.’ “

[Sahih Bukhari:H.159, Sahih Muslim:H.226]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s
Messenger (
) said, “If anyone of you
performs ablution he should put water in his nose and then blow it out.”

[Sahih Bukhari:H.162, Sahih Muslim:H.237]

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s
Messenger (
) ordered to rinse the mouth
and snuff water.

[Sunan Darqutni:1/116]

[4] Ibid

[5] WIPING OVER THE HEAD:Though wiping over the head is
clearly mentioned in the Ayah 6:6, but some scholars view that wiping over a
small portion of head is sufficient, because a portion of head is also
considered head. This logic is not supported by the Prophetic practices. The
Messenger of Allah () always wiped over the entire head, except
when he was wearing turban.

Yahya Al-Mazini narrated that a person asked Abdullah bin Zaid
(May Allah be pleased with him)
who was the grandfather of Amr bin Yahya, “Can you show me
how Allah’s Messenger (
) used to perform ablution?” `Abdullah
bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him
)  replied in
the affirmative and asked for water. He poured it on his hands and washed them
twice, then he rinsed his mouth thrice and washed his nose with water thrice by
putting water in it and blowing it out. He washed his face thrice and after
that he washed his forearms up to the elbows twice and then passed his wet
hands over his head from its front to its back and vice versa (beginning from
the front and taking them to the back of his head up to the nape of the neck
and then brought them to the front again from where he had started) and washed
his feet (up to the ankles).

[Sahih Bukhari:H.185, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.18]

It is notable that ears are part of head as it has been described
by Allah’s Messenger (
).

Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be
pleased with him) narrated that
the Messenger of Allah () said: ‘The ears are part of the head.’

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.443]

Abu Umamah Al-Bahili (May Allah be
pleased with him) narrated that
the Messenger of Allah () used to say: ‘Ears are part of the head.’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.22666]

Imam Ahmad R.A declared this Hadith authentic and reliable.

 

 

[6] See foot note no.3

[7] PERFORMING WUDHU IN REQUIRED ORDER:
The
Messenger of Allah () always
performed  Wudhu in an order that
has been mentioned in Surah Al-Maidah. It shows that keeping order is a
requirement of this Ayah. That is why performing Wudhu in prescribed
order is an obligation. If somebody changes the order his Wudhu is null and
void.

[8] MUWALAT: Muwalat
refers to consecutiveness. One should wash organs of Wudhu with a moderate
speed, so that when he washes an organ he should wash the next organ before
drying up the previous organ. The reason for this ruling is that
Allah’s Messenger ()
always performed Wudhu consecutively. He never paused for a longer time during Wudhu.

[9] SHUROOT: Arabic connotation Shuroot
refers to pre-requisites required to be fulfilled prior to commencing some
ritual practices. There are eight pre-requisites for Wudhu.

[10] It means whatever invalidates Wudhu,
should has come to an end, like menses, postpartum bleeding, defecation,
urination etc.

[11] INTENTION: Umar bin
Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger
(
) saying, “The reward of deeds depends
upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he
has intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to
marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for.”

[Sahih Bukhari:1]

 

Jundub (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet () said, “He who lets the people hear of
his good deeds intentionally, to win their praise, Allah will let the people
know his real intention (on the Day of Resurrection), and he who does good
things in public to show off and win the praise of the people, Allah will
disclose his real intention (and humiliate him).

[Sahih Bukhari:H.6499]

 

[12] ISLAM:  Allah Almighty said:

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salaah (the
prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by
passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles…”
(Al-Ma’idah 6)

The Qur’an
addresses the believers when commanding to perform Wudhu and offer Salaah. That
is why Islam is a pre-requisite of Wudhu. Non-Muslims are not required
to perform these ritual practices without embracing Islam.

[13] SANITY: Sanity is a condition for Wudhu.
Insane person is not required to perfom this purification.

Ali
bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of
Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The pen (of
commandment) has been taken away from three persons, i.e the child until he
reaches the age of puberty, the sleeping person until he awakes and the insane
until he recovers.”

[Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H. 940,956,1183, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.1423]

[14] ADOLESCENCE: See Ali’s narration
mentioned in the previous footnote.

[15] LAWFUL
PURIFYING WATER:
See lessons
related to Purifying Water and its types: Lesson no.2 to 4

[16] REMOVING THE WATER RESISTANT MATERIALS:
The purpose of Wudhu is washing the skin of the required organs. If
there is a layer of some water resistant materials on the skin the purpose
would not be fulfilled. This is why it is required to remove any water
resistant material from the skin prior to performing the Wudhu, like
nail paint, grease, mobile oil, enamel etc. If the layer of any water resistant
material persists, the Wudhu will be invalid.

[17] AL-ISTINJA: When a person uses
lavatory, or he is suffering from prostatic fluid secretion, he is required to
do Istinja before performing Wudhu. If he has used lavatory he
can use stones (or tissue papers) for cleansing filth, but if he is undergoing
prostatic fluid secretion he is required to do Istinja with water.

Abdullah ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I asked the Messenger of Allah () as to what makes it
necessary to take a bath and about the (prostatic) fluid that flows after
taking a bath. He replied: that is called madhi (prostatic fluid). It flows
from every male. You should wash your private parts and testicles because of it
and perform ablution as you do for prayer.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.211]

Females suffering from Leukorrhea
are also required Isntinja before performing Wudhu. Allah knows
the best.

SPECIAL NOTE FOR SICK PEOPLE:

The people who are suffering from a sickness
that affects ritual purification, they are required to fulfill another
condition prior to performing Wudhu, in addition to aforementioned eight
conditions. The female suffering from Istihadah (post menses vaginal
bleeding), leucorrhea or the male suffering from excessive and continuous
secretion of prostatic fluid, drops after urination continuously, continuous
farting etc are required to perform Wudhu after entering the time of
each Salaah. It means they have to perform Wudhu for each Salaah
and they are not allowed to offer prayers for more than one time with a single
Wudhu.

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) narrated
“Fatimah bint Abi Hubaish (May Allah be pleased with
her)
came to the Prophet ():
‘O Messenger of Allah! I am a woman who bleeds continuously and never becomes
pure. Should I give up prayer?’ he said: ‘No, that is just a vein and is not
menstruation. Do not perform prayer during the days of your period, then take a
bath, and perform ablution for each prayer, even if drops of blood fall on the mat.'”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.624]

Adi ibn Thabit narrated from his grandfather Qais bin Khutaim Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with
him)
that the Prophet () said
about the woman having a prolonged flow of blood: She should abandon prayer during
her menstrual period: then she should take a bath and pray. She should perform
ablution for every prayer.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.297, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.625]

[18] Wudhu is key to Salaah, so Salaah
is impermissible without Wudhu. Wudu for Salaah is declared obligatory
by the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the
Messenger of Allah (
)
said: The prayer of a person who does not perform ablution is not valid, and
the ablution of a person who does not mention the name of Allah (in the
beginning) is not valid.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 9408, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.101, Sunan Ibni
Majah:H.399]

[19] Tawaf is an act of worship that requires Whudu, because it is
like of Salaah.

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (
) said:  Tawaaf
around the House is similar to Salaah except that you talk during it. So
whoever talks in it, then let him not say but good.”

[Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.960]

Abdullah
bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (
) said: ‘ A menstruating woman and the one who delivered a child
should take a bath, put on ihram and perform all the rites of Hajj except
circumambulation of the House (Ka’bah) when they came to the place of wearing
ihram.’

[Sunan Abu
Dawood:H.1744]

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her)
reported :

‘I
got my menses, so the Prophet
() ordered me to carry out all the rites
except for Tawaaf around the House.’

[Iami
at-Tirmidhi:H.945]

These
Hadiths show that Tawaaf is analogous to Salaah for requirement
of ritual purification.

[20] Allah Almighty said:

None touch it except the purified.”
[56:79]

So perfect purification is required for
touching the Qur’an, that is major and and minor ablution.

Abu Bakr bin Hazm reported that the Messenger of Allah () wrote to
him: ‘Don’t touch the Qur’an except in a state of ritual purification.

[Muwatta Imam Malik:H.466]

[21] Firstly, the acts were mentioned which
mandates Wudhu, while now those acts are described for which Wudhu
is not mandatory but recommended.

[22] Though reciting the Qur’an from memory or
without touching the Mushaf in a state of Hadath Asghar (minor
impurity)
is allowed, but performing Wudhu is recommended in
this case for the veneration and respect of the Qur’an.

[23] Performing Wudhu is recommended for
Dhikr (remembering Allah Almighty) and reciting such phrases that
contains His beautiful names.

[24] Adhan is also a kind of Dhikr so
performing Wudhu is recommended for calling Adhan.

[25] Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her)
reported that When the
Messenger
of Allah (
) intended to go to bed, he
performed Wudhu like Wudhu of Salaah, then went to bed.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25414]

[26] If one is doubtful whether he performed Wudhu
or not, he is advised to perform Wudhu.

[27] AbuWa’il
al-Qass said: We entered upon Urwah ibn Muhammad ibn as-Sa’di. A man spoke to
him and made him angry. So he stood and performed ablution; he then returned
and performed ablution, and said: My father told me on the authority of my
grandfather Atiyyah (May Allah be pleased with him) who reported the Messenger
of Allah (
) as saying: Anger comes from the devil, the
devil was created of fire, and fire is extinguished only with water; so when
one of you becomes angry, he should perform ablution.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.4784]

Because
unlawful speech is also from Satan, so it is recommended if someone utters such
unlawful words, he should perform Wudhu.

[28] Allah Almighty said:

A mosque
founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in.
Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who
purify themselves.

[9:108]

The
content of this Ayah demands people to be purified for staying in Masjid,
though it is not mandatory but recommended.

[29] It was the general practice of the Allah’s Messenger ()
and his companions to teach the Qur’an and Islam in a state of ritual puruty.
As the following Hadith mentions:

Abdullah bin Umar (May
Allah be pleased ith them) reported that Allah’s Messenger (
), Abu Bakr and Umar (May Allah be pleased ith them) used to
offer the two Eid prayers before delivering the Khutbah.

[Sahih Bukhari:963]

Khutbah was a tool for
teaching the Muslims.

[30] Salman Al-Farisi (May Allah be pleased
with him) reported that I read in Taurah that there is blessing in
washing hands after taking meal. I told Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His
blessings and peace on him) what I read in Taurah. He said, “There is
blessing in washing hands before and after meal.” [Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.24133]

[31] Because the required intention lies in the
heart

[32] It means if doubt persists while
performing an act of worship, the intention is null and void hence the same
act. However if doubt occurs after completing an act of worship, the act is
valid because intention was there during performance. Allah knows the best.

[33] For the practice of Sahabah R.A

[34] See the Chapter 4 (Hygienic Habits)

[35] Generally, washing hands thrice in the
beginning of Wudhu is Sunnah, as it was the general practice of
the Messenger of Allah
().

Humran R.A (the slave of ‘Uthman) narrated, “I saw Uthman bin
Affan
(May Allah be pleased with him) asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought)
he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right
hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting
water in it and then blowing it out. Then he washed his face and forearms up to
the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to
the ankles thrice. Then he said, “Allah’s Messenger (
) said ‘If anyone performs ablution like that of mine and offers
a two-rak’at prayer during which he does not think of anything else (not
related to the present prayer) then his past sins will be forgiven.’ “

[Sahih Bukhari:H.159, Sahih Muslim:H.226]

Al-Miqdam ibn Ma’dikarib al-Kindi (May
Allah be pleased with him) reported that
the ablution water was brought to the Messenger () and
he performed ablution; he washed his hands up to wrists three times, then
washed his forearms three times. He then rinsed his mouth and snuffed up water
three times; then he wiped his head and ears inside and outside.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.121]

Ar-Rubayyi’ daughter of Mu’awwidh ibn Afra (May Allah be pleased with
her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (
) used to come to us. He
once said: Pour ablution water on me. She then described how the Prophet (
)
performed ablution saying: He washed his hands up to wrist three times and
washed his face three times, and rinsed his mouth and snuffed up water once.
Then he washed his forearms three times and wiped his head twice beginning from
the back of his head, then wiped its front. He wiped his ears outside and
inside. Then he washed his feet three times.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.126]

 

However, after wakening
from deep night sleep washing hands thrice is obligatory. For details see
Chapter 1 (Types of Water), foot note no.30.

[36] As it has been established through many
authentic reports from the Messenger of Allah
(), one of them narrated by Uthman bin Affan (May
Allah be pleased with him).

[37] Laqit ibn
Sabirah
(May Allah be pleased with him) reported I said: Messenger of Allah! tell me about ablution.
He said: Perform ablution in full and make the fingers go through the beard and
snuff with water well except when you are fasting.

[Abu Dawood:H.142, Sunan
an-Nasai:H.87]

[38] See the previous foot note

[39] Ibn’Abbas
(May Allah be pleased with them)
said, Ali bin  Abi Talib (May Allah be pleased with
him)
entered
upon me after he has passed water. He then called for water for ablution. We
brought to him a vessel containing water, and placed it before him. He said: O
Ibn’Abbas, may I not show you how the Messenger of Allah (
) used to perform ablution? I
replied : Why not? He then inclined the vessel to his hand and washed it. He
then put his right hand in the vessel and poured water over the other hand and
washed his hands up to the wrist. He then rinsed his mouth and snuffed up
water. He then put both of his hands together in the water and took out a
handful of water and threw it upon the face. He then inserted both of his
thumbs in the front part of the ears. He did like that twice and thrice. He
then took a handful of water and poured it over his forehead and left it
running down his face.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.117]

[40] Anas ibn
Malik  (May
Allah be pleased with him) reported that whenever the Messenger of Allah (
) performed ablution, he took a handful of
water, and, putting it under his chin, made it go through his beard, saying:
Thus did my Lord command me.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.145]

[41] Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: ‘When you get up
for prayer, perform ablution properly and make the water run between your toes
and your fingers.’

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.447]

Laqit
ibn Sabirah
(May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the
Messenger of Allah
() said: ‘Whenever you perform ablution, run your fingers in
between your fingers.’

[Musna Imam Ahmad:H.16495]

[42] This ruling has been derived from the
Hadiths that recommend perfection of Wudhu. Though ears are part of
head, but to ensure the perfection they may be treated as separate organs.

Abdullah bin
Amr 
(May Allah be pleased with him) reported
that
the Messenger of Allah ()
said: ‘Perfect your ablution’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.6809]

Abu Rawh (May Allah be
pleased with him)
reported that the Messenger of Allah () said:

‘Some of your people say
prayers with us but they don’t perform ablution well. Whoever wants to offer
prayers with us, he should perform ablution well.’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15969]

Abdullah As-Sunabihi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah ()
said: “Whoever performs ablution and rinses his mouth and nose, his sins
will exit through his mouth and nose. When he washes his face, his sins will
exit from his face, even from beneath his eyelids. When he washes his hands,
his sins will exit from his hands. When he wipes his head, his sins will exit
from his head, and even from his ears. When he washes his feet, his sins will
exit from his feet, even from beneath his toenails. Then his prayer and walking
towards the mosque will earn extra merit for him.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.282]

The
recommended method of wiping over ears is described in the following Hadith:

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be
pleased with them
) reported that  The
Messenger of Allah wiped his ears, putting his forefingers in his ears and
wiping the back of them with his thumbs, so he wiped them inside and out.

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.439]

[43] It has been mentioned in a number of
Hadiths, particularly Hadith of Ali
(May Allah be pleased with him) mentioned in the foot note no. 24. See
also the next foot note.

[44] Abdullah
al-Mujmir reported R.a said I saw Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with
him)  perform ablution. He washed his
face and washed it well. He then washed his right hand including a portion of
his upper arm. He then washed his left hand including a portion of his upper
arm. He then wiped his head. He then washed his right foot including his shank,
and then washed his left foot including shank, and then said: This is how I saw
Allah’s Messenger (
) perform his ablution. And (Abu Huraira)
added that the Messenger of Allah (
) had observed: ‘You shall have your faces hands and feet bright
on the Day of Resurrection because of your perfect ablution. He who can afford
among you, let him increase the brightness of his forehead and that of hands
and legs.’

[Sahih Muslim:H.246]

[45] Washing limbs thrice renders to perfection
of Wudhu. Hadith of Ali, Uthman, Miqdam bin Ma’adi al-Karib, Abu Umamah,
Abdullah bin Uamr, Abdullah bin Amr
(May Allah
be pleased with them
)  etc mention
that the Prophet Muhammad
() used
to wash the limbs thrice. The following Hadiths is more evident in its
meanings:

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be
pleased with them
) reported that the
Messenger of Allah (
) said: ‘One who washes limbs once, he fulfills the
obligation, whoever washes limbs twice, he deserves two dishes. And whoever
washes limbs thrice, that is my ablution and the Prophets who came before me.’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.5735]

 

 

[46] Because whole Wudhu is act of
worship, so persistence of Niyyah of purification should persist till
the end of Wudhu.

[47] Because Wudhu begins from washing
hands, so Niyyah of purification should be present right before performing this
act.

[48] It is recommended that before performing Wudhu,
it is better to recite the words of Niyyah silently, being analogous to
the Niyyah of Hajj and Umrah. Remember that it is not an
innovation because, a legislative principle Qiyas (analogy) has been used for
this ruling.

Imam Abul Khattab Al-Hanbali R.A described three types
of Niyyah:

1.    
Perfect: Intention in heart and reciting words with one’s tongue

2.    
Permissible: Intention in heart only

3.    
Null and Void: Reciting words by tongue with
an inattentive heart

[Sharh al-Ibadat al-Khams, by
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Ya’aqoobi, p.58-59]

[49] Umar bin
Khattab
(May Allah be pleased with him)
  reported that Allah’s
Messenger
() said: If anyone amongst you performs the ablution, and
then completes the ablution well and then says: I testify that there is no god
but Allah and that Muhammad
 () is
the servant of Allah and His Messenger, the eight gates of Paradise would be
opened for him and he may enter by whichever of them he wishes.

[Sahih Muslim:H.234A]

In
narration of Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawood raising gaze to sky is recommended in
the Hadith of Umar bin Khattab R.A. [
Musnad
Imam Ahmad:H.121]

It is better to recite
Shahadah thrice as it has been mentioned in the Hadith of Anas bin Malik
(May Allah be pleased with him). [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.13828]

It is also recommended to add this phrase with
Shahadah:

 اَللَّهُمَّ اِجْعَلْنِي مِنْ اَلتَّوَّابِينَ, وَاجْعَلْنِي
مِنْ اَلْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

O Allah! Make me among the
repentant, and make me among those who purify themselves.

Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him)  reported that Allah’s Messenger  () said: ‘Whoever performs Wudu, making Wudu well,
then says: (Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah, wahdahu la sharika lahu, wa ashhadu
anna Muhammadan-abduhu wa rasuluhu, Allahummajalni minat tawwabin, waj’alni
minal mutatahhirin) ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but
Allah Alone, there are no partners for Him. And I testify that Muhammad is His
servant and Messenger. O Allah! Make me among the repentant, and make me among
those who purify themselves.’ Then eight gates of Paradise are opened for him,
that may enter by whichever of them wishes.”

[Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.55]

 

[50] All the Hadiths mentioned in the previous
notes show that the Sahabah who taught the method of Prophetic Wudhu,
did not accepted assistance from others to perform Wudhu. So these
Hadiths conclude that performing Wudhu without taking somebody’s help is
Sunnah. However, it is permissible to take somebody’s help when one needs.

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